Topic

# Refractive index

About: Refractive index is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 51519 publications have been published within this topic receiving 774041 citations. The topic is also known as: index of refraction & IOR.

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TL;DR: These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root ofɛ·μ for the frequencies where both the permittivity and the permeability are negative.

Abstract: We present experimental scattering data at microwave frequencies on a structured metamaterial that exhibits a frequency band where the effective index of refraction (n) is negative. The material consists of a two-dimensional array of repeated unit cells of copper strips and split ring resonators on interlocking strips of standard circuit board material. By measuring the scattering angle of the transmitted beam through a prism fabricated from this material, we determine the effective n, appropriate to Snell's law. These experiments directly confirm the predictions of Maxwell's equations that n is given by the negative square root of epsilon.mu for the frequencies where both the permittivity (epsilon) and the permeability (mu) are negative. Configurations of geometrical optical designs are now possible that could not be realized by positive index materials.

8,477 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a single-beam technique for measuring both the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for a wide variety of materials is reported, including a comprehensive theoretical analysis.

Abstract: A sensitive single-beam technique for measuring both the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient for a wide variety of materials is reported. The authors describe the experimental details and present a comprehensive theoretical analysis including cases where nonlinear refraction is accompanied by nonlinear absorption. In these experiments, the transmittance of a sample is measured through a finite aperture in the far field as the sample is moved along the propagation path (z) of a focused Gaussian beam. The sign and magnitude of the nonlinear refraction are easily deduced from such a transmittance curve (Z-scan). Employing this technique, a sensitivity of better than lambda /300 wavefront distortion is achieved in n/sub 2/ measurements of BaF/sub 2/ using picosecond frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser pulses. >

7,717 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental demonstration of electromagnetically induced transparency in an ultracold gas of sodium atoms, in which the optical pulses propagate at twenty million times slower than the speed of light in a vacuum, is presented.

Abstract: Techniques that use quantum interference effects are being actively investigated to manipulate the optical properties of quantum systems1. One such example is electromagnetically induced transparency, a quantum effect that permits the propagation of light pulses through an otherwise opaque medium2,3,4,5. Here we report an experimental demonstration of electromagnetically induced transparency in an ultracold gas of sodium atoms, in which the optical pulses propagate at twenty million times slower than the speed of light in a vacuum. The gas is cooled to nanokelvin temperatures by laser and evaporative cooling6,7,8,9,10. The quantum interference controlling the optical properties of the medium is set up by a ‘coupling’ laser beam propagating at a right angle to the pulsed ‘probe’ beam. At nanokelvin temperatures, the variation of refractive index with probe frequency can be made very steep. In conjunction with the high atomic density, this results in the exceptionally low light speeds observed. By cooling the cloud below the transition temperature for Bose–Einstein condensation11,12,13 (causing a macroscopic population of alkali atoms in the quantum ground state of the confining potential), we observe even lower pulse propagation velocities (17?m?s−1) owing to the increased atom density. We report an inferred nonlinear refractive index of 0.18?cm2?W−1 and find that the system shows exceptionally large optical nonlinearities, which are of potential fundamental and technological interest for quantum optics.

3,438 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the index of refraction of optical quality fused silica (SiO2) was determined for 60 wavelengths from 0.21 to 3.71 μ at 20°C.

Abstract: The index of refraction of optical quality fused silica (SiO2) was determined for 60 wavelengths from 0.21 to 3.71 μ at 20°C. The dispersion equation n2-1=0.6961663λ2λ2-(0.0684043)2+0.4079426λ2λ2-(0.1162414)2+0.8974794λ2λ2-(9.896161)2.where λ is expressed in microns was found to yield an absolute residual of 10.5×10−6. The variation in index between 12 specimens was determined. Dispersive properties of the material and thermal coefficient of index are graphically presented. A comparison with previous NBS index data is discussed.

3,382 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed the reflection and transmission coefficients calculated from transfer matrix simulations on finite lengths of electromagnetic metamaterials, to determine the effective permittivity and permeability.

Abstract: We analyze the reflection and transmission coefficients calculated from transfer matrix simulations on finite lengths of electromagnetic metamaterials, to determine the effective permittivity ~«! and permeability ~m! .W e perform this analysis on structures composed of periodic arrangements of wires, split ring resonators ~SRRs!, and both wires and SRRs. We find the recovered frequency-dependent« and m are entirely consistent with analytic expressions predicted by effective medium arguments. Of particular relevance are that a wire medium exhibits a frequency region in which the real part of « is negative, and SRRs produce a frequency region in which the real part of m is negative. In the combination structure, at frequencies where both the recovered real parts of « and m are simultaneously negative, the real part of the index of refraction is also found to be unambiguously negative.

2,689 citations