About: Remyelination is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4210 publications have been published within this topic receiving 201721 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Deyelinated plaques in multiple sclerosis consists mostly of scar-type astrocytes and naked axons, but astroCytes inhibit the migration of both oligodendrocyte precursors and Schwann cells which must restrict their access to demyelinated axons.
Abstract: Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) results in a glial reaction, leading eventually to the formation of a glial scar. In this environment, axon regeneration fails, and remyelination may also be unsuccessful. The glial reaction to injury recruits microglia, oligodendrocyte precursors, meningeal cells, astrocytes and stem cells. Damaged CNS also contains oligodendrocytes and myelin debris. Most of these cell types produce molecules that have been shown to be inhibitory to axon regeneration. Oligodendrocytes produce NI250, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and tenascin-R, oligodendrocyte precursors produce NG2 DSD-1/phosphacan and versican, astrocytes produce tenascin, brevican, and neurocan, and can be stimulated to produce NG2, meningeal cells produce NG2 and other proteoglycans, and acitivated microglia produce free radicals, nitric oxide, and arachidonic acid derivatives. Many of these molecules must participate in rendering the damaged CNS inhibitory for axon regeneration. Demyelinated plaques in multiple sclerosis consists mostly of scar-type astrocytes and naked axons. The extent to which the astrocytosis is responsible for blocking remyelination is not established, but astrocytes inhibit the migration of both oligodendrocyte precursors and Schwann cells which must restrict their access to demyelinated axons.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived parameters to assess the extent of axonal damage, demyelination and axonal degeneration.
Abstract: Myelin damage, as seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating diseases, impairs axonal conduction and can also be associated with axonal degeneration. Accurate assessments of these conditions may be highly beneficial in evaluating and selecting therapeutic strategies for patient management. Recently, an analytical approach examining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived parameters has been proposed to assess the extent of axonal damage, demyelination, or both. The current study uses the well-characterized cuprizone model of experimental demyelination and remyelination of corpus callosum in mouse brain to evaluate the ability of DTI parameters to detect the progression of myelin degeneration and regeneration. Our results demonstrate that the extent of increased radial diffusivity reflects the severity of demyelination in corpus callosum of mouse brain affected by cuprizone treatment. Subsequently, radial diffusivity decreases with the progression of remyelination. Furthermore, radial diffusivity changes were specific to the time course of changes in myelin integrity as distinct from axonal injury, which was detected by betaAPP immunostaining and shown to be most extensive prior to demyelination. Radial diffusivity offers a specific assessment of demyelination and remyelination, as distinct from acute axonal damage.
TL;DR: The mechanisms of remyelination provide critical clues for regeneration biologists that help them to determine why remYelination fails in MS and in other demyelinating diseases and how it might be enhanced therapeutically.
Abstract: Remyelination involves reinvesting demyelinated axons with new myelin sheaths. In stark contrast to the situation that follows loss of neurons or axonal damage, remyelination in the CNS can be a highly effective regenerative process. It is mediated by a population of precursor cells called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which are widely distributed throughout the adult CNS. However, despite its efficiency in experimental models and in some clinical diseases, remyelination is often inadequate in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common demyelinating disease and a cause of neurological disability in young adults. The failure of remyelination has profound consequences for the health of axons, the progressive and irreversible loss of which accounts for the progressive nature of these diseases. The mechanisms of remyelination therefore provide critical clues for regeneration biologists that help them to determine why remyelination fails in MS and in other demyelinating diseases and how it might be enhanced therapeutically.
TL;DR: It is found that a switch from an M1- to an M2-dominant response occurred in microglia and peripherally derived macrophages as remyelination started and activin-A is identified as a therapeutic target for CNS regeneration.
Abstract: In this study, the authors show that oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination after a CNS lesion coincides with a switch in microglial/macrophage polarization from a pro-inflammatory, M1, phenotype to an anti-inflammatory, M2, phenotype. This M2-dependant effect was in part mediated by secretion of the TGFβ family member, Activin-A.
TL;DR: It is shown that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into adult rat spinal cord injuries enhances remyelination and promotes improvement of motor function.
Abstract: Demyelination contributes to loss of function after spinal cord injury, and thus a potential therapeutic strategy involves replacing myelin-forming cells. Here, we show that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into adult rat spinal cord injuries enhances remyelination and promotes improvement of motor function. OPCs were injected 7 d or 10 months after injury. In both cases, transplanted cells survived, redistributed over short distances, and differentiated into oligodendrocytes. Animals that received OPCs 7 d after injury exhibited enhanced remyelination and substantially improved locomotor ability. In contrast, when OPCs were transplanted 10 months after injury, there was no enhanced remyelination or locomotor recovery. These studies document the feasibility of predifferentiating hESCs into functional OPCs and demonstrate their therapeutic potential at early time points after spinal cord injury.
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