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Rendering (computer graphics)

About: Rendering (computer graphics) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 41389 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 776535 citation(s). The topic is also known as: image synthesis.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: VMD is a molecular graphics program designed for the display and analysis of molecular assemblies, in particular biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids, which can simultaneously display any number of structures using a wide variety of rendering styles and coloring methods.
Abstract: VMD is a molecular graphics program designed for the display and analysis of molecular assemblies, in particular biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids. VMD can simultaneously display any number of structures using a wide variety of rendering styles and coloring methods. Molecules are displayed as one or more "representations," in which each representation embodies a particular rendering method and coloring scheme for a selected subset of atoms. The atoms displayed in each representation are chosen using an extensive atom selection syntax, which includes Boolean operators and regular expressions. VMD provides a complete graphical user interface for program control, as well as a text interface using the Tcl embeddable parser to allow for complex scripts with variable substitution, control loops, and function calls. Full session logging is supported, which produces a VMD command script for later playback. High-resolution raster images of displayed molecules may be produced by generating input scripts for use by a number of photorealistic image-rendering applications. VMD has also been expressly designed with the ability to animate molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories, imported either from files or from a direct connection to a running MD simulation. VMD is the visualization component of MDScope, a set of tools for interactive problem solving in structural biology, which also includes the parallel MD program NAMD, and the MDCOMM software used to connect the visualization and simulation programs. VMD is written in C++, using an object-oriented design; the program, including source code and extensive documentation, is freely available via anonymous ftp and through the World Wide Web.

36,939 citations


Book
01 Jan 1995-
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the development of Hardware and Software for Computer Graphics, and the design methodology of User-Computer Dialogues, which led to the creation of the Simple Raster Graphics Package.
Abstract: 1 Introduction Image Processing as Picture Analysis The Advantages of Interactive Graphics Representative Uses of Computer Graphics Classification of Applications Development of Hardware and Software for Computer Graphics Conceptual Framework for Interactive Graphics 2 Programming in the Simple Raster Graphics Package (SRGP)/ Drawing with SRGP/ Basic Interaction Handling/ Raster Graphics Features/ Limitations of SRGP/ 3 Basic Raster Graphics Algorithms for Drawing 2d Primitives Overview Scan Converting Lines Scan Converting Circles Scan Convertiing Ellipses Filling Rectangles Fillign Polygons Filling Ellipse Arcs Pattern Filling Thick Primiives Line Style and Pen Style Clipping in a Raster World Clipping Lines Clipping Circles and Ellipses Clipping Polygons Generating Characters SRGP_copyPixel Antialiasing 4 Graphics Hardware Hardcopy Technologies Display Technologies Raster-Scan Display Systems The Video Controller Random-Scan Display Processor Input Devices for Operator Interaction Image Scanners 5 Geometrical Transformations 2D Transformations Homogeneous Coordinates and Matrix Representation of 2D Transformations Composition of 2D Transformations The Window-to-Viewport Transformation Efficiency Matrix Representation of 3D Transformations Composition of 3D Transformations Transformations as a Change in Coordinate System 6 Viewing in 3D Projections Specifying an Arbitrary 3D View Examples of 3D Viewing The Mathematics of Planar Geometric Projections Implementing Planar Geometric Projections Coordinate Systems 7 Object Hierarchy and Simple PHIGS (SPHIGS) Geometric Modeling Characteristics of Retained-Mode Graphics Packages Defining and Displaying Structures Modeling Transformations Hierarchical Structure Networks Matrix Composition in Display Traversal Appearance-Attribute Handling in Hierarchy Screen Updating and Rendering Modes Structure Network Editing for Dynamic Effects Interaction Additional Output Features Implementation Issues Optimizing Display of Hierarchical Models Limitations of Hierarchical Modeling in PHIGS Alternative Forms of Hierarchical Modeling 8 Input Devices, Interaction Techniques, and Interaction Tasks Interaction Hardware Basic Interaction Tasks Composite Interaction Tasks 9 Dialogue Design The Form and Content of User-Computer Dialogues User-Interfaces Styles Important Design Considerations Modes and Syntax Visual Design The Design Methodology 10 User Interface Software Basic Interaction-Handling Models Windows-Management Systems Output Handling in Window Systems Input Handling in Window Systems Interaction-Technique Toolkits User-Interface Management Systems 11 Representing Curves and Surfaces Polygon Meshes Parametric Cubic Curves Parametric Bicubic Surfaces Quadric Surfaces 12 Solid Modeling Representing Solids Regularized Boolean Set Operations Primitive Instancing Sweep Representations Boundary Representations Spatial-Partitioning Representations Constructive Solid Geometry Comparison of Representations User Interfaces for Solid Modeling 13 Achromatic and Colored Light Achromatic Light Chromatic Color Color Models for Raster Graphics Reproducing Color Using Color in Computer Graphics 14 The Quest for Visual Realism Why Realism? Fundamental Difficulties Rendering Techniques for Line Drawings Rendering Techniques for Shaded Images Improved Object Models Dynamics Stereopsis Improved Displays Interacting with Our Other Senses Aliasing and Antialiasing 15 Visible-Surface Determination Functions of Two Variables Techniques for Efficient Visible-Surface Determination Algorithms for Visible-Line Determination The z-Buffer Algorithm List-Priority Algorithms Scan-Line Algorithms Area-Subdivision Algorithms Algorithms for Octrees Algorithms for Curved Surfaces Visible-Surface Ray Tracing 16 Illumination And Shading Illumination Modeling Shading Models for Polygons Surface Detail Shadows Transparency Interobject Reflections Physically Based Illumination Models Extended Light Sources Spectral Sampling Improving the Camera Model Global Illumination Algorithms Recursive Ray Tracing Radiosity Methods The Rendering Pipeline 17 Image Manipulation and Storage What Is an Image? Filtering Image Processing Geometric Transformations of Images Multipass Transformations Image Compositing Mechanisms for Image Storage Special Effects with Images Summary 18 Advanced Raster Graphic Architecture Simple Raster-Display System Display-Processor Systems Standard Graphics Pipeline Introduction to Multiprocessing Pipeline Front-End Architecture Parallel Front-End Architectures Multiprocessor Rasterization Architectures Image-Parallel Rasterization Object-Parallel Rasterization Hybrid-Parallel Rasterization Enhanced Display Capabilities 19 Advanced Geometric and Raster Algorithms Clipping Scan-Converting Primitives Antialiasing The Special Problems of Text Filling Algorithms Making copyPixel Fast The Shape Data Structure and Shape Algebra Managing Windows with bitBlt Page Description Languages 20 Advanced Modeling Techniques Extensions of Previous Techniques Procedural Models Fractal Models Grammar-Based Models Particle Systems Volume Rendering Physically Based Modeling Special Models for Natural and Synthetic Objects Automating Object Placement 21 Animation Conventional and Computer-Assisted Animation Animation Languages Methods of Controlling Animation Basic Rules of Animation Problems Peculiar to Animation Appendix: Mathematics for Computer Graphics Vector Spaces and Affine Spaces Some Standard Constructions in Vector Spaces Dot Products and Distances Matrices Linear and Affine Transformations Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Newton-Raphson Iteration for Root Finding Bibliography Index 0201848406T04062001

5,690 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1996-
TL;DR: This paper describes a sampled representation for light fields that allows for both efficient creation and display of inward and outward looking views, and describes a compression system that is able to compress the light fields generated by more than a factor of 100:1 with very little loss of fidelity.
Abstract: A number of techniques have been proposed for flying through scenes by redisplaying previously rendered or digitized views. Techniques have also been proposed for interpolating between views by warping input images, using depth information or correspondences between multiple images. In this paper, we describe a simple and robust method for generating new views from arbitrary camera positions without depth information or feature matching, simply by combining and resampling the available images. The key to this technique lies in interpreting the input images as 2D slices of a 4D function the light field. This function completely characterizes the flow of light through unobstructed space in a static scene with fixed illumination. We describe a sampled representation for light fields that allows for both efficient creation and display of inward and outward looking views. We hav e created light fields from large arrays of both rendered and digitized images. The latter are acquired using a video camera mounted on a computer-controlled gantry. Once a light field has been created, new views may be constructed in real time by extracting slices in appropriate directions. Since the success of the method depends on having a high sample rate, we describe a compression system that is able to compress the light fields we have generated by more than a factor of 100:1 with very little loss of fidelity. We also address the issues of antialiasing during creation, and resampling during slice extraction. CR Categories: I.3.2 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation — Digitizing and scanning, Viewing algorithms; I.4.2 [Computer Graphics]: Compression — Approximate methods Additional keywords: image-based rendering, light field, holographic stereogram, vector quantization, epipolar analysis

4,018 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This major upgrade has been fully re-engineered to enhance speed, accuracy and usability with interactive 3D visualization of ENDscript 2 and ESPript 3 to handle a large number of data with reduced computation time.
Abstract: ENDscript 2 is a friendly Web server for extracting and rendering a comprehensive analysis of primary to quaternary protein structure information in an automated way. This major upgrade has been fully re-engineered to enhance speed, accuracy and usability with interactive 3D visualization. It takes advantage of the new version 3 of ESPript, our well-known sequence alignment renderer, improved to handle a large number of data with reduced computation time. From a single PDB entry or file, ENDscript produces high quality figures displaying multiple sequence alignment of proteins homologous to the query, colored according to residue conservation. Furthermore, the experimental secondary structure elements and a detailed set of relevant biophysical and structural data are depicted. All this information and more are now mapped on interactive 3D PyMOL representations. Thanks to its adaptive and rigorous algorithm, beginner to expert users can modify settings to fine-tune ENDscript to their needs. ENDscript has also been upgraded as an open platform for the visualization of multiple biochemical and structural data coming from external biotool Web servers, with both 2D and 3D representations. ENDscript 2 and ESPript 3 are freely available at http://endscript.ibcp.fr and http://espript.ibcp.fr, respectively.

3,493 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Modifications to the Kain‐Fritsch convective parameterization evolved from an effort to produce desired effects in numerical weather prediction while also rendering the scheme more faithful to observations and cloud-resolving modeling studies.
Abstract: Numerous modifications to the Kain‐Fritsch convective parameterization have been implemented over the last decade. These modifications are described, and the motivating factors for the changes are discussed. Most changes were inspired by feedback from users of the scheme (primarily numerical modelers) and interpreters of the model output (mainly operational forecasters). The specific formulation of the modifications evolved from an effort to produce desired effects in numerical weather prediction while also rendering the scheme more faithful to observations and cloud-resolving modeling studies.

3,423 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20229
20211,358
20202,149
20192,347
20182,247
20172,003

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Hans-Peter Seidel

181 papers, 8.1K citations

Thomas Ertl

125 papers, 5.4K citations

Kwan-Liu Ma

94 papers, 4K citations

Arie E. Kaufman

87 papers, 3.2K citations

Ravi Ramamoorthi

68 papers, 4K citations