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Renewable energy

About: Renewable energy is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 87639 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1610040 citation(s). The topic is also known as: RES & renewable energy source.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1212741
18 Nov 2011-Science
Abstract: The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.

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Topics: Grid energy storage (67%), Intermittent energy source (65%), Energy storage (63%) ...read more

8,906 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/CR1002326
10 Nov 2010-Chemical Reviews
Abstract: Energy harvested directly from sunlight offers a desirable approach toward fulfilling, with minimal environmental impact, the need for clean energy. Solar energy is a decentralized and inexhaustible natural resource, with the magnitude of the available solar power striking the earth’s surface at any one instant equal to 130 million 500 MW power plants.1 However, several important goals need to be met to fully utilize solar energy for the global energy demand. First, the means for solar energy conversion, storage, and distribution should be environmentally benign, i.e. protecting ecosystems instead of steadily weakening them. The next important goal is to provide a stable, constant energy flux. Due to the daily and seasonal variability in renewable energy sources such as sunlight, energy harvested from the sun needs to be efficiently converted into chemical fuel that can be stored, transported, and used upon demand. The biggest challenge is whether or not these goals can be met in a costeffective way on the terawatt scale.2

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Topics: Solar power (65%), Renewable energy (64%), Solar energy (63%) ...read more

7,163 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.0603395103
Nathan S. Lewis1, Daniel G. Nocera2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Global energy consumption is projected to increase, even in the face of substantial declines in energy intensity, at least 2-fold by midcentury relative to the present because of population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere demands that holding atmospheric CO2 levels to even twice their preanthropogenic values by midcentury will require invention, development, and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable energy resources, solar energy is by far the largest exploitable resource, providing more energy in 1 hour to the earth than all of the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. In view of the intermittency of insolation, if solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, it must be stored and dispatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar-converted energy in the form of chemical bonds, i.e., in a photosynthetic process at a year-round average efficiency significantly higher than current plants or algae, to reduce land-area requirements. Scientific challenges involved with this process include schemes to capture and convert solar energy and then store the energy in the form of chemical bonds, producing oxygen from water and a reduced fuel such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, or other hydrocarbon species.

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Topics: Primary energy (68%), Energy development (65%), Energy intensity (65%) ...read more

6,324 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/TIE.2006.881997
Abstract: Renewable energy sources like wind, sun, and hydro are seen as a reliable alternative to the traditional energy sources such as oil, natural gas, or coal. Distributed power generation systems (DPGSs) based on renewable energy sources experience a large development worldwide, with Germany, Denmark, Japan, and USA as leaders in the development in this field. Due to the increasing number of DPGSs connected to the utility network, new and stricter standards in respect to power quality, safe running, and islanding protection are issued. As a consequence, the control of distributed generation systems should be improved to meet the requirements for grid interconnection. This paper gives an overview of the structures for the DPGS based on fuel cell, photovoltaic, and wind turbines. In addition, control structures of the grid-side converter are presented, and the possibility of compensation for low-order harmonics is also discussed. Moreover, control strategies when running on grid faults are treated. This paper ends up with an overview of synchronization methods and a discussion about their importance in the control

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Topics: Distributed generation (66%), Intermittent energy source (63%), Wind power (63%) ...read more

4,134 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2009.10.009
Liam Brennan1, Philip Owende2, Philip Owende1Institutions (2)
Abstract: Sustainability is a key principle in natural resource management, and it involves operational efficiency, minimisation of environmental impact and socio-economic considerations; all of which are interdependent. It has become increasingly obvious that continued reliance on fossil fuel energy resources is unsustainable, owing to both depleting world reserves and the green house gas emissions associated with their use. Therefore, there are vigorous research initiatives aimed at developing alternative renewable and potentially carbon neutral solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels as alternative energy resources. However, alternate energy resources akin to first generation biofuels derived from terrestrial crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, maize and rapeseed place an enormous strain on world food markets, contribute to water shortages and precipitate the destruction of the world's forests. Second generation biofuels derived from lignocellulosic agriculture and forest residues and from non-food crop feedstocks address some of the above problems; however there is concern over competing land use or required land use changes. Therefore, based on current knowledge and technology projections, third generation biofuels specifically derived from microalgae are considered to be a technically viable alternative energy resource that is devoid of the major drawbacks associated with first and second generation biofuels. Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms with simple growing requirements (light, sugars, CO 2 , N, P, and K) that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts over short periods of time. These products can be processed into both biofuels and valuable co-products. This study reviewed the technologies underpinning microalgae-to-biofuels systems, focusing on the biomass production, harvesting, conversion technologies, and the extraction of useful co-products. It also reviewed the synergistic coupling of microalgae propagation with carbon sequestration and wastewater treatment potential for mitigation of environmental impacts associated with energy conversion and utilisation. It was found that, whereas there are outstanding issues related to photosynthetic efficiencies and biomass output, microalgae-derived biofuels could progressively substitute a significant proportion of the fossil fuels required to meet the growing energy demand.

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  • Figure 2. 2 Standard curve for the determination of reducing sugar using the Miller method.
    Figure 2. 2 Standard curve for the determination of reducing sugar using the Miller method.
  • Table 1.6: Selected physical pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic feedstock used in biogas production.
    Table 1.6: Selected physical pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic feedstock used in biogas production.
  • Table 1.7: Acid and alkaline pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic feedstock
    Table 1.7: Acid and alkaline pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic feedstock
  • Table 2.1 gives a summary of typical physicochemical characteristics of maize straw obtained in previous studies.
    Table 2.1 gives a summary of typical physicochemical characteristics of maize straw obtained in previous studies.
  • Table 2.3 summarizes typical physicochemical characteristics of cattle manure obtained from previous works. Table 2. 3 Physicochemical properties of cattle manure.
    Table 2.3 summarizes typical physicochemical characteristics of cattle manure obtained from previous works. Table 2. 3 Physicochemical properties of cattle manure.
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Topics: Second-generation biofuels (65%), Aviation biofuel (64%), Biofuel (60%) ...read more

3,930 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022347
20218,157
20208,495
20198,340
20187,456
20177,069

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Ibrahim Dincer

176 papers, 9.8K citations

Tomonobu Senjyu

125 papers, 2.3K citations

Neven Duić

98 papers, 3.8K citations

Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo

92 papers, 1.5K citations

Joao P. S. Catalao

91 papers, 2.1K citations

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