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Residual stress

About: Residual stress is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 39030 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 554846 citation(s).

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24 Aug 1987
Abstract: 1 Introduction.- 1.1 The Origin of Stresses.- 1.2 Methods of Measuring Residual Stresses.- 1.3 Some Examples of Residual Stresses.- References.- 2 Fundamental Concepts in Stress Analysis.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Definitions.- 2.3 Stress and Strain.- 2.4 Forces and Stresses.- 2.5 Displacements and Strains.- 2.6 Transformation of Axes and Tensor Notation.- 2.7 Elastic Stress-Strain Relations for Isotropic Materials.- 2.8 Structure of Single Crystals.- 2.9 Elastic Stress-Strain Relations in Single Crystals.- 2.10 Equations of Equilibrium.- 2.11 Conditions of Compatibility.- 2.12 Basic Definitions in Plastic Deformation.- 2.13 Plastic Deformation of Single Crystals.- 2.14 Deformation and Yielding in Inhomogeneous Materials.- Problems.- 3 Analysis of Residual Stress Fields Using Linear Elasticity Theory.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Macroresidual Stresses.- 3.3 Equations of Equilibrium for Macrostresses.- 3.4 Microstresses.- 3.5 Equations of Equilibrium for Micro- and Pseudo-Macrostresses.- 3.6 Calculation of Micro- and PM Stresses.- 3.7 The Total Stress State in Surface Deformed Multiphase Materials.- 3.8 Macroscopic Averages of Single Crystal Elastic Constants.- 3.9 The Voigt Average.- 3.10 The Reuss Average.- 3.11 Other Approaches to Elastic Constant Determination.- 3.12 Average Diffraction Elastic Constants.- Summary.- References.- 4 Fundamental Concepts in X-ray Diffraction.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Fundamentals of X-rays.- 4.3 Short-wavelength Limit and the Continuous Spectrum.- 4.4 Characteristic Radiation Lines.- 4.5 X-ray Sources.- 4.6 Absorption of X-rays.- 4.7 Filtering of X-rays.- 4.8 Scattering of X-rays.- 4.9 Scattering from Planes of Atoms.- 4.10 The Structure Factor of a Unit Cell.- 4.11 Experimental Utilization of Bragg's Law.- 4.12 Monochromators.- 4.13 Collimators and Slits.- 4.14 Diffraction Patterns from Single Crystals.- 4.15 Diffraction Patterns from Polycrystalline Specimens.- 4.16 Basic Diffractometer Geometry.- 4.17 Intensity of Diffracted Lines for Polycrystals.- 4.18 Multiplicity.- 4.19 Lorentz Factor.- 4.20 Absorption Factor.- 4.21 Temperature Factor.- 4.22 X-ray Detectors.- 4.23 Deadtime Correction for Detection Systems.- 4.24 Total Diffracted Intensity at a Given Angle 20.- 4.25 Depth of Penetration of X-rays.- 4.26 Fundamental Concepts in Neutron Diffraction.- 4.27 Scattering and Absorption of Neutrons.- Problems.- Bibliography and References.- 5 Determination of Strain and Stress Fields by Diffraction Methods.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Fundamental Equations of X-ray Strain Determination.- 5.3 Analysis of Regular "d" vs. sin2? Data.- 5.4 Determination of Stresses from Diffraction Data.- 5.5 Biaxial Stress Analysis.- 5.6 Triaxial Stress Analysis.- 5.7 Determination of the Unstressed Lattice Spacing.- 5.8 Effect of Homogeneity of the Strain Distribution and Specimen Anisotropy.- 5.9 Average Strain Data from Single Crystal Specimens.- 5.10 Interpretation of the Average X-ray Strain Data Measured from Polycrystalline Specimens.- 5.11 Interpretation of Average Stress States in Polycrystalline Specimens.- 5.12 Effect of Stress Gradients Normal to the Surface on d vs. sin2? Data.- 5.13 Experimental Determination of X-ray Elastic Constants.- 5.14 Determination of Stresses from Oscillatory Data.- 5.15 Stress Measurements with Neutron Diffraction.- 5.16 Effect of Composition Gradients with Depth.- 5.17 X-ray Determination of Yielding.- 5.18 Summary.- Problem.- References.- 6 Experimental Errors Associated with the X-ray Measurement of Residual Stress.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Selection of the Diffraction Peak for Stress Measurements.- 6.3 Peak Location.- 6.3.1 Half-Value Breadth and Centroid Methods.- 6.3.2 Functional Representations of X-ray Peaks.- 6.3.3 Peak Determination by Fitting a Parabola.- 6.3.4 Determination of Peak Shift.- 6.4 Determination of Peak Position for Asymmetric Peaks.- 6.5 Statistical Errors Associated with the X-ray Measurement of Line Profiles.- 6.6 Statistical Errors in Stress.- 6.6.1 The sin2? Technique.- 6.6.2 Two-Tilt Technique.- 6.6.3 Triaxial Stress Analysis.- 6.6.4 Statistical Errors in X-ray Elastic Constants.- 6.7 Instrumental Errors in Residual Stress Analysis.- 6.7.1 Variation of the Focal Point with ? and ?.- 6.7.2 Effect of Horizontal Divergence on Focusing.- 6.7.3 Effect of Vertical Beam Divergence.- 6.7.4 Effect of Specimen Displacement.- 6.7.5 Effect of ?-axis not Corresponding to the 2?-axis.- 6.7.6 Error Equations for the ?-Goniometer.- 6.7.7 Effect of Errors in the True Zero Position of the ?-axis.- 6.7.8 Alignment Procedures.- 6.8 Corrections for Macrostress Gradients.- 6.9 Corrections for Layer Removal.- 6.10 Summary.- Problems.- References.- 7 The Practical Use of X-ray Techniques.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The Use of Ordinary Diffractometers.- 7.3 Software and Hardware Requirements.- 7.4 Available Instruments.- 7.5 Selected Applications of a Portable X-ray Residual Stress Unit (By W. P. Evans).- Reference.- 8 The Shape of Diffraction Peaks - X-ray Line Broadening.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Slit Corrections.- 8.3 Fourier Analysis of Peak Broadening.- Problem.- References.- Appendix A: Solutions to Problems.- Appendix B.- B.1 Introduction.- B.2 The Marion-Cohen Method.- B.3 Dolle-Hauk Method (Oscillation-free Reflections).- B.4 Methods of Peiter and Lode.- B.5 Use of High Multiplicity Peaks.- References.- Appendix C: Fourier Analysis.- Appendix D: Location of Useful Information in "International Tables for Crystallography".- Appendix F: A Compilation of X-ray Elastic Constants (By Dr. M. James).- References.

2,120 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Residual stress is that which remains in a body that is stationary and at equilibrium with its surroundings. It can be very detrimental to the performance of a material or the life of a component. Alternatively, beneficial residual stresses can be introduced deliberately. Residual stresses are more difficult to predict than the in-service stresses on which they superimpose. For this reason, it is important to have reliable methods for the measurement of these stresses and to understand the level of information they can provide. In this paper, which is the first part of a two part overview, the effect of residual stresses on fatigue lifetimes and structural integrity are first summarised, followed by the definition and measurement of residual stresses. Different types of stress are characterised according to the characteristic length scale over which they self-equilibrate. By comparing this length to the gauge volume of each technique, the capability of a range of techniques is assessed. In the sec...

1,173 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A general continuum formulation for finite volumetric growth in soft elastic tissues is proposed and it is shown that transmurally uniform pure circumferential growth, which may be similar to eccentric ventricular hypertrophy, changes the state of residual stress in the heart wall.
Abstract: Growth and remodeling in tissues may be modulated by mechanical factors such as stress For example, in cardiac hypertrophy, alterations in wall stress arising from changes in mechanical loading lead to cardiac growth and remodeling A general continuum formulation for finite volumetric growth in soft elastic tissues is therefore proposed The shape change of an unloaded tissue during growth is described by a mapping analogous to the deformation gradient tensor This mapping is decomposed into a transformation of the local zero-stress reference state and an accompanying elastic deformation that ensures the compatibility of the total growth deformation Residual stress arises from this elastic deformation Hence, a complete kinematic formulation for growth in general requires a knowledge of the constitutive law for stress in the tissue Since growth may in turn be affected by stress in the tissue, a general form for the stress-dependent growth law is proposed as a relation between the symmetric growth-rate tensor and the stress tensor With a thick-walled hollow cylinder of incompressible, isotropic hyperelastic material as an example, the mechanics of left ventricular hypertrophy are investigated The results show that transmurally uniform pure circumferential growth, which may be similar to eccentric ventricular hypertrophy, changes the state of residual stress in the heart wall A model of axially loaded bone is used to test a simple stress-dependent growth law in which growth rate depends on the difference between the stress due to loading and a predetermined growth equilibrium stress

1,143 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Selective laser melting (SLM) is driven by the need to process near full density objects with mechanical properties comparable to those of bulk materials. During the process the powder particles are completely molten by the laser beam. The resulting high density allows avoiding lengthy post-processing as required with selective laser sintering (SLS) of metal powders. Unlike SLS, SLM is more difficult to control. Because of the large energy input of the laser beam and the complete melting of particles problems like balling, residual stresses and deformation occur. This paper will describe SLM applied to a mixture of different types of particles (Fe, Ni, Cu and Fe3P) specially developed for SLM. The different appearing phenomenons are discussed and the process optimization is described. The latter includes an appropriate process parameter adjustment and the application of special scanning strategies. Resulting parts are characterized by their microstructure, density and mechanical properties.

1,132 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Purpose – This paper presents an investigation into residual stresses in selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM), aiming at a better understanding of this phenomenon.Design/methodology/approach – First, the origin of residual stresses is explored and a simple theoretical model is developed to predict residual stress distributions. Next, experimental methods are used to measure the residual stress profiles in a set of test samples produced with different process parameters.Findings – Residual stresses are found to be very large in SLM parts. In general, the residual stress profile consists of two zones of large tensile stresses at the top and bottom of the part, and a large zone of intermediate compressive stress in between. The most important parameters determining the magnitude and shape of the residual stress profiles are the material properties, the sample and substrate height, the laser scanning strategy and the heating conditions.Research limitations/implications – All exper...

1,070 citations

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