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Respiratory function

About: Respiratory function is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 13181 publications have been published within this topic receiving 312541 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A revised version of the ALSFRS, which incorporates additional assessments of dyspnea, orthopnea, and the need for ventilatory support is validated, indicating that the quality of function is a strong determinant of quality of life in ALS.

2,440 citations

01 Jan 1939
TL;DR: In this paper, the development of the tracheal system is described in the context of the development in the egg and its development in a cocoon during moulting and metamorphosis.
Abstract: I Development in the Egg.- References.- II The Integument.- Properties of the cuticle.- Formation and shedding of the cuticle.- References.- III Growth.- Moulting.- Metamorphosis.- Determination of characters during post-embryonic development.- Regeneration.- Diapause.- References.- IV Muscular System and Locomotion.- Anatomy and histology.- Physiological properties of insect muscles.- Locomotion.- References.- V Nervous and Endocrine Systems.- Nervous system.- Visceral nervous system.- Endocrine system.- References.- VI Sense Organs: Vision.- Compound eye.- Simple eyes.- References.- VII Sense Organs: Mechanical and Chemical Senses.- Mechanical senses.- Hearing.- Chemical senses.- Temperature and humidity.- References.- VIII Behaviour.- Kinesis and related phenomena.- Orientation.- Co-ordinated behaviour.- References.- IX Respiration.- Tracheal system.- Development of the tracheal system.- Transport of oxygen to the tracheal endings.- Elimination of carbon dioxide.- Respiration of aquatic insects.- Respiration of endoparasitic insects.- Respiratory function of the blood.- Regulation of respiratory movements.- References.- X The Circulatory System and Associated Tissues.- Circulatory system.- Haemolymph.- Haemocytes.- Pericardial cells and so-called 'nephrocytes'.- Fat body.- Oenocytes.- Light-producing organs.- References.- XI Digestion and Nutrition.- Fore-gut.- Peritrophic membrane.- Mid-gut.- Hind-gut.- Secretions of the alimentary canal.- Digestion of some skeletal and other substances of plants and animals.- The role of lower organisms in digestion.- Nutrition.- References.- XII Excretion.- Urine.- Intermediary nitrogen metabolism.- Malpighian tubes.- Histophysiology of the Malpighian tubes.- Accessory functions of Malpighian tubes.- Malpighian tubes during moulting and metamorphosis.- Cephalic excretory organs and intestinal excretion.- Storage excretion.- References.- XIII Metabolism.- Chemical transformations.- Some chemical products of insects.- Pigment metabolism.- Respiratory metabolism.- References.- XIV Water and Temperature.- Water relations.- Temperature relations.- References.- XV Reproductive System.- Female reproductive system.- Male reproductive system.- Mating, impregnation and fertilization.- Some factors controlling fertility and fecundity.- Special modes of reproduction.- Sex determination.- Transmission of symbiotic micro-organisms.- References.- Index of Authors.- General Index.

1,641 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Daily screening of the respiratory function of adults receiving mechanical ventilation, followed by trials of spontaneous breathing in appropriate patients and notification of their physicians when the trials were successful, can reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and the cost of intensive care and is associated with fewer complications than usual care.
Abstract: Background Prompt recognition of the reversal of respiratory failure may permit earlier discontinuation of mechanical ventilation, without harm to the patient. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in 300 adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation in medical and coronary intensive care units. In the intervention group, patients underwent daily screening of respiratory function by physicians, respiratory therapists, and nurses to identify those possibly capable of breathing spontaneously; successful tests were followed by two-hour trials of spontaneous breathing in those who met the criteria. Physicians were notified when their patients successfully completed the trials of spontaneous breathing. The control subjects had daily screening but no other interventions. In both groups, all clinical decisions, including the decision to discontinue mechanical ventilation, were made by the attending physicians. Results Although the 149 patients randomly assigned to the intervention group had more ...

1,301 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Broad-spectrum antiviral GS-5734 inhibits both epidemic and zoonotic coronaviruses in vitro and in vivo and may prove effective against endemic MERS-CoV in the Middle East, circulating human CoV, and, possibly most importantly, emerging CoV of the future.
Abstract: Emerging viral infections are difficult to control because heterogeneous members periodically cycle in and out of humans and zoonotic hosts, complicating the development of specific antiviral therapies and vaccines. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have a proclivity to spread rapidly into new host species causing severe disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) successively emerged, causing severe epidemic respiratory disease in immunologically naive human populations throughout the globe. Broad-spectrum therapies capable of inhibiting CoV infections would address an immediate unmet medical need and could be invaluable in the treatment of emerging and endemic CoV infections. We show that a nucleotide prodrug, GS-5734, currently in clinical development for treatment of Ebola virus disease, can inhibit SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV replication in multiple in vitro systems, including primary human airway epithelial cell cultures with submicromolar IC50 values. GS-5734 was also effective against bat CoVs, prepandemic bat CoVs, and circulating contemporary human CoV in primary human lung cells, thus demonstrating broad-spectrum anti-CoV activity. In a mouse model of SARS-CoV pathogenesis, prophylactic and early therapeutic administration of GS-5734 significantly reduced lung viral load and improved clinical signs of disease as well as respiratory function. These data provide substantive evidence that GS-5734 may prove effective against endemic MERS-CoV in the Middle East, circulating human CoV, and, possibly most importantly, emerging CoV of the future.

1,274 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is speculated that exposure to combustion-generated MWCNTs in fine PM may play a significant role in air pollution-related cardiopulmonary diseases by pollutants, and the possible mechanisms of CNT pathogenesis in the lung and the impact of residual metals and other impurities on the toxicological manifestations are presented.
Abstract: Nanotechnology has emerged at the forefront of science research and technology development. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are major building blocks of this new technology. They possess unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, with potential wide applications in the electronics, computer, aerospace, and other industries. CNTs exist in two forms, single-wall (SWCNTs) and multi-wall (MWCNTs). They are manufactured predominately by electrical arc discharge, laser ablation and chemical vapor deposition processes; these processes involve thermally stripping carbon atoms off from carbon-bearing compounds. SWCNT formation requires catalytic metals. There has been a great concern that if CNTs, which are very light, enter the working environment as suspended particulate matter (PM) of respirable sizes, they could pose an occupational inhalation exposure hazard. Very recently, MWCNTs and other carbonaceous nanoparticles in fine (<2.5 microm) PM aggregates have been found in combustion streams of methane, propane, and natural-gas flames of typical stoves; indoor and outdoor fine PM samples were reported to contain significant fractions of MWCNTs. Here we review several rodent studies in which test dusts were administered intratracheally or intrapharyngeally to assess the pulmonary toxicity of manufactured CNTs, and a few in vitro studies to assess biomarkers of toxicity released in CNT-treated skin cell cultures. The results of the rodent studies collectively showed that regardless of the process by which CNTs were synthesized and the types and amounts of metals they contained, CNTs were capable of producing inflammation, epithelioid granulomas (microscopic nodules), fibrosis, and biochemical/toxicological changes in the lungs. Comparative toxicity studies in which mice were given equal weights of test materials showed that SWCNTs were more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard if it is chronically inhaled; ultrafine carbon black was shown to produce minimal lung responses. The differences in opinions of the investigators about the potential hazards of exposures to CNTs are discussed here. Presented here are also the possible mechanisms of CNT pathogenesis in the lung and the impact of residual metals and other impurities on the toxicological manifestations. The toxicological hazard assessment of potential human exposures to airborne CNTs and occupational exposure limits for these novel compounds are discussed in detail. Environmental fine PM is known to form mainly from combustion of fuels, and has been reported to be a major contributor to the induction of cardiopulmonary diseases by pollutants. Given that manufactured SWCNTs and MWCNTs were found to elicit pathological changes in the lungs, and SWCNTs (administered to the lungs of mice) were further shown to produce respiratory function impairments, retard bacterial clearance after bacterial inoculation, damage the mitochondrial DNA in aorta, increase the percent of aortic plaque, and induce atherosclerotic lesions in the brachiocephalic artery of the heart, it is speculated that exposure to combustion-generated MWCNTs in fine PM may play a significant role in air pollution-related cardiopulmonary diseases. Therefore, CNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment could have adverse effects on human health.

1,204 citations

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