Topic

# Retaining wall

About: Retaining wall is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7556 publications have been published within this topic receiving 41045 citations.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

••

TL;DR: In this paper, the load-deformation behavior of soils in mixed boundary value problems at model scale is discussed. But the main objective is to develop an understanding of the stress-strain behaviour of soils so that reliable predictions can be made concerning their load deformation characteristics at all working loads, rather than only loads at failure.

Abstract: Synopsis The aims, during the past 20 years, of the Cambridge research programme in soil mechanics are outlined. The principal objective is to develop an understanding of the stress–strain behaviour of soils so that reliable predictions can be made concerning their load-deformation characteristics at all working loads, rather than only loads at failure, in practical problems. A superstructure and its foundation can then be designed as a unit. The pressing need for the study of the load-deformation behaviour of soils in mixed boundary value problems at model scale is emphasized. New versatile shear test equipment which can impose a wide range of stress and/or strain paths, together with non-destructive methods of checking the uniformity of the behaviour of specimens, are briefly described. Typical data are presented for one problem, illustrating the variation of the passive pressure on a retaining wall with the displacement of that wall into sand. A revised statement of the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion i...

795 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, a means is developed for simulation of realistic behavior of the interface between a backfill soil and a retaining wall in finite element analyses, and the interface behavior is shown from a series of laboratory tests to be dependent upon normal and shear stresses on the interface.

Abstract: A means is developed for simulation of realistic behavior of the interface between a backfill soil and a retaining wall in finite element analyses. The interface behavior is shown from a series of laboratory tests to be dependent upon normal and shear stresses on the interface. An analytical formulation is derived to fit the observed relationships and utilized to govern the behavior of a one-dimensional element which serves as the interface between two dimensional soil and retaining wall elements in finite element analyses. Analyses are presented of a typical retaining wall-backfill system with varying modes of wall behavior and degrees of wall roughness. Earth presure distributions before the ultimate conditions are reached are shown to be nonlinear. Ultimate conditions and general behavior of the system are shown to be in agreement with classical theory and previously observed behavior. An additional analysis is presented in which the exact construction sequence of a retaining-wall backfill system is simulated.

369 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an analysis which takes into account a finite shear wave velocity in the backtill, thus allowing for the phase change in a prototype structure.

Abstract: Centrifuge modelling tests show clearly the phase change in lateral acceleration in the backfill behind a retaining wall as shear waves propagate from the base of the model towards the ground surface. However, design calculations for the dynamic lateral earth pressure on a retaining wall which use a pseudo-static approach assume that the backfill experiences a uniform acceleration throughout. Researchers have agreed that the total lateral earth pressure calculated using this approach is approximately correct, but have disagreed over the distribution of the dynamic increment of pressure. The Paper presents an analysis which takes into account a finite shear wave velocity in the backtill, thus allowing for the phase change in a prototype structure. The phase change does not have a significant influence on the magnitude of the total earth pressure, but it has a marked effect on the distribution of the dynamic increment. The resultant pressure is seen to act at a point above one third of the height of the wal...

367 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the quasi-static Mononobe-Okabe analysis for the prediction of earthquake dynamic forces on a gravity retaining wall, and showed that wall inertia effects are of the same order as the dynamic soil thrust.

Abstract: First, the paper shows that in order to use the quasi-static Mononobe-Okabe analysis for the prediction of earthquake dynamic forces on a gravity retaining wall, wall inertia effects must be included. Second, a design procedure is developed in which the designer chooses an acceptable level of wall displacement: he then computes the design wall weight which will restrict displacement in an earthquake to the predetermined level. Wall inertia effects are shown to be of the same order as the dynamic soil thrust, and to be sensitive to vertical acceleration and to base and wall friction. Design recommendations are given which relate to proposed American provisions for seismic zoning.

324 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, the construction and surcharge loading response of four full-scale reinforced-soil segmental retaining walls is simulated using the program FLAC, and the numerical model implementation is described and constitutive models for the component materials (i.e., modular block facing units, backfill and four different reinforcement materials) are presented.

Abstract: The construction and surcharge loading response of four full-scale reinforced-soil segmental retaining walls is simulated using the program FLAC. The numerical model implementation is described and constitutive models for the component materials (i.e., modular block facing units, backfill, and four different reinforcement materials) are presented. The influence of backfill compaction and reinforcement type on end-of-construction and surcharge loading response is investigated. Predicted response features of each test wall are compared against measured boundary loads, wall displacements, and reinforcement strain values. Physical test measurements are unique in the literature because they include a careful estimate of the reliability of measured data. Predictions capture important qualitative features of each of the four walls and in many instances the quantitative predictions are within measurement accuracy. Where predictions are poor, explanations are provided. The comprehensive and high quality physical data reported in this paper and the lessons learned by the writers are of value to researchers engaged in the development of numerical models to extend the limited available database of physical data for reinforced soil wall response.

258 citations