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Rician fading

About: Rician fading is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4507 publications have been published within this topic receiving 68389 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The image intensity in magnetic resonance magnitude images in the presence of noise is shown to be governed by a Rician distribution and low signal intensities (SNR < 2) are therefore biased due to the noise.
Abstract: The image intensity in magnetic resonance magnitude images in the presence of noise is shown to be governed by a Rician distribution. Low signal intensities (SNR < 2) are therefore biased due to the noise. It is shown how the underlying noise can be estimated from the images and a simple correction scheme is provided to reduce the bias. The noise characteristics in phase images are also studied and shown to be very different from those of the magnitude images. Common to both, however, is that the noise distributions are nearly Gaussian for SNR larger than two.

2,425 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: An analytical approach for symbol error ratio (SER) analysis of the SM algorithm in independent identically distributed Rayleigh channels results closely match and it is shown that SM achieves better performance in all studied channel conditions, as compared with other techniques.
Abstract: Spatial modulation (SM) is a recently developed transmission technique that uses multiple antennas. The basic idea is to map a block of information bits to two information carrying units: 1) a symbol that was chosen from a constellation diagram and 2) a unique transmit antenna number that was chosen from a set of transmit antennas. The use of the transmit antenna number as an information-bearing unit increases the overall spectral efficiency by the base-two logarithm of the number of transmit antennas. At the receiver, a maximum receive ratio combining algorithm is used to retrieve the transmitted block of information bits. Here, we apply SM to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission. We develop an analytical approach for symbol error ratio (SER) analysis of the SM algorithm in independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh channels. The analytical and simulation results closely match. The performance and the receiver complexity of the SM-OFDM technique are compared to those of the vertical Bell Labs layered space-time (V-BLAST-OFDM) and Alamouti-OFDM algorithms. V-BLAST uses minimum mean square error (MMSE) detection with ordered successive interference cancellation. The combined effect of spatial correlation, mutual antenna coupling, and Rician fading on both coded and uncoded systems are presented. It is shown that, for the same spectral efficiency, SM results in a reduction of around 90% in receiver complexity as compared to V-BLAST and nearly the same receiver complexity as Alamouti. In addition, we show that SM achieves better performance in all studied channel conditions, as compared with other techniques. It is also shown to efficiently work for any configuration of transmit and receive antennas, even for the case of fewer receive antennas than transmit antennas.

1,996 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of ML detection in spatial diversity reception to reduce the diversity gain penalty caused by correlation between the fading at different receivers is described.
Abstract: In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received light signal, impairing link performance. We describe several communication techniques to mitigate turbulence-induced intensity fluctuations, i.e., signal fading. These techniques are applicable in the regime in which the receiver aperture is smaller than the correlation length of fading and the observation interval is shorter than the correlation time of fading. We assume that the receiver has no knowledge of the instantaneous fading state. When the receiver knows only the marginal statistics of the fading, a symbol-by-symbol ML detector can be used to improve detection performance. If the receiver has knowledge of the joint temporal statistics of the fading, maximum-likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) can be employed, yielding a further performance improvement, but at the cost of very high complexity. Spatial diversity reception with multiple receivers can also be used to overcome turbulence-induced fading. We describe the use of ML detection in spatial diversity reception to reduce the diversity gain penalty caused by correlation between the fading at different receivers.

1,490 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show that the degradation in performance with correlation in an adaptive array that combats fading and suppresses interference is only slightly larger than that for combating fading alone, i.e., with maximal ratio combining.
Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the effect of correlations among the fading signals at the antenna elements of an adaptive array in a digital wireless communication system. With an adaptive array, the signals received by multiple antennas are optimally weighted and combined to suppress interference and combat desired signal fading. Previous results for flat and frequency-selective fading assumed independent fading at each antenna. Here, we present a model of local scattering around a mobile where the received multipath signals arrive at the base station within a given beamwidth, and derive a closed-form expression for the correlation as a function of antenna spacing. Results show that the degradation in performance with correlation in an adaptive array that combats fading and suppresses interference is only slightly larger than that for combating fading alone, i.e., with maximal ratio combining. This degradation is small even with correlation as high as 0.5. >

635 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is proved that in the absence of ideal channel state information the design criteria for space- time codes is still valid and the diversity order promised by space-time coding is achieved under a variety of mobility conditions and environmental effects.
Abstract: Space-time coding is a bandwidth and power efficient method of communication over fading channels that realizes the benefits of multiple transmit antennas. Specific codes have been constructed using design criteria derived for quasi-static flat Rayleigh or Rician fading, where channel state information is available at the receiver. It is evident that the practicality of space-time codes will be greatly enhanced if the derived design criteria remain valid in the absence of perfect channel state information. It is even more desirable that the design criteria not be unduly sensitive to frequency selectivity and to the Doppler spread. This paper presents a theoretical study of these issues beginning with the effect of channel estimation error. Here it is assumed that a channel estimator extracts fade coefficients at the receiver and for constellations with constant energy, it is proved that in the absence of ideal channel state information the design criteria for space-time codes is still valid. The analysis also demonstrates that standard channel estimation techniques can be used in conjunction with space-time codes provided that the number of transmit antennas is small. We also derive the maximum-likelihood detection metric in the presence of channel estimation errors. Next, the effect of multiple paths on the performance of space-time codes is studied for a slowly changing Rayleigh channel. It is proved that the presence of multiple paths does not decrease the diversity order guaranteed by the design criteria used to construct the space-time codes. Similar results hold for rapid fading channels with or without multiple paths. The conclusion is that the diversity order promised by space-time coding is achieved under a variety of mobility conditions and environmental effects.

619 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20241
2023124
2022287
2021174
2020203
2019214