About: Ring (chemistry) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 121980 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 949304 citation(s).
30 Sep 1997-
Abstract: CHEC III is organized in 15 Volumes and closely follows the organization used in the previous edition: Volumes 1 and 2: Cover respectively three- and four-membered heterocycles, together with all fused systems containing a three- or four-membered heterocyclic ring. Volume 3: Five-membered rings with one heteroatom together with their benzo- and other carbocyclic-fused derivatives. Volumes 4, 5 and 6: Cover five-membered rings with two heteroatoms, and three or more heteroatoms, respectively, each with their fused carbocyclic compounds. Volumes 7, 8 and 9: Dedicated to six-membered rings with one, two, and more than two heteroatoms, respectively, again with the corresponding fused carbocylic compounds. Volumes 10, 11 and 12: Cover systems containing at least two directly fused heterocyclic five- and/or six-membered rings: of these Volume 10 deals with bi-heterocyclic rings without a ring junction heteroatom, and Volume 11 deals with 5:5 and 5:6 fused rings systems with at least one ring junction nitrogen, while Volume 12 is devoted to all other systems of five and/or six-membered fused or spiro heterocyclic rings with ring junction heteroatoms. Volumes 13 and 14: Seven-membered and larger heterocyclic rings including all their fused derivatives (except those containing three- or four-membered heterocyclic rings which are included in Volume 1 and 2, respectively). Volume 15: Author, ring and subject indexes.
01 Mar 1975-Journal of the American Chemical Society
Abstract: A unique mean plane is defined for a general monocyclic puckered ring. The geometry of the puckering relative to this plane is described by amplitude and phase coordinates which are generalizations of those introduced for cyclopentane by Kilpatrick, Pitzer, and Spitzer. Unlike earlier treatments based on torsion angles, no mathematical approximations are involved. A short treatment of the four-, five-, and six-membered ring demonstrates the usefulness of this concept. Finally, an example is given of the analysis of crystallographic structural data in terms of these coordinates. Although the nonplanar character of closed rings in many cyclic compounds has been widely recognized for many years, there remain some difficulties in its quantitative specification. An important first step was taken by Kilpatrick, Pitzer, and Spitzer in their 1947 discussion of the molecular structure of cyclopentane.' Starting with the normal modes of out-of-plane motions of a planar regular pentagon,* they pointed out that displacement of the j t h carbon atom perpendicular to the plane could be written 2 112 zj = (/'SI 4 COS (2+ + 4 n ( j 11/51 (11 where q is a puckering amplitude and $ is a phase angle describing various kinds of puckering. By considering changes in an empirical potential energy for displacements perpendicular to the original planar form, they gave reasons to believe that the lowest energy was obtained for a nonzero value of q (finite puckering) but that this minimum was largely independent of $. Motion involving a change in fi at constant q was described as pseudorotation. Subsequent refinement of this work has involved models in which constraints to require constant bond lengths are imposed3q4 and extensions to larger rings5-' and some heterocyclic systems are considered.* Although the correctness of the model of Kilpatrick, et a f . , I and the utility of the (q. $) coordinate system is generally accepted, application to a general five-membered ring with unequal bond lengths and angles is not straightforward. Given the Cartesian coordinates for the five atoms (as from a crystal structure), determination of puckering displacements z, requires specification of the plane z = 0. A least-squares choice (minimization of Zz i2) is one possibility, but the five displacements relative to this plane cannot generally be expressed in terms of two parameters q and $ according to eq 1. An attempt to define a generalized set of puckering cordinates which avoids these difficulties was made by Geise, Altona, Romers, and S~ndara l ingam.~l ' Their quantitative description of puckering in five-membered rings involves the five torsion angles 0, rather than displacements perpendicular to some plane. These torsion angles are directly derivable from the atomic coordinates and are all zero in the planar form. They proposed a relationship of the form\
02 Jun 2009-Annual Review of Biochemistry
TL;DR: RING E3s have been linked to the control of many cellular processes and to multiple human diseases, and knowledge of the physiological partners, biological functions, substrates, and mechanism of action for most RING E 3s remains at a rudimentary stage.
Abstract: E3 ligases confer specificity to ubiquitination by recognizing target substrates and mediating transfer of ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitinconjugating enzyme to substrate. The activity of most E3s is specified by a RING domain, which binds to an E2∼ubiquitin thioester and activates discharge of its ubiquitin cargo. E2-E3 complexes can either monoubiquitinate a substrate lysine or synthesize polyubiquitin chains assembled via different lysine residues of ubiquitin. These modifications can have diverse effects on the substrate, ranging from proteasome-dependent proteolysis to modulation of protein function, structure, assembly, and/or localization. Not surprisingly, RING E3mediated ubiquitination can be regulated in a number of ways. RING-based E3s are specified by over 600 human genes, surpassing the 518 protein kinase genes. Accordingly, RING E3s have been linked to the control of many cellular processes and to multiple human diseases. Despite their critical importance, our knowledge of the physiological partners, biological functions, substrates, and mechanism of action for most RING E3s remains at a rudimentary stage.
01 Jul 1979-Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan
Abstract: A rapid and mild esterification method using carboxylic 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoic anhydrides in the presence of 4-dimethylaminopyridine was developed. The method was also successfully applied to the synthesis of large-ring lactones, including DL-2,4,6-tridemethyl-3-deoxymethynolide.
TL;DR: The endocyclic closure of nucleophilic centres to polarized double bonds to give five-membered rings is impeded by restrictions of geometry; these restrictions can be overcome in acid through the generation of oxonium or protonated forms.
Abstract: Three rules which have been found useful, on an empirical basis, to predict the relative facility of ring forming reactions are presented; the physical bases of such rules are described.