Topic

# Ring (mathematics)

About: Ring (mathematics) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 19980 publications have been published within this topic receiving 233849 citations. The topic is also known as: ring possibly without identity.

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30 Oct 1997

TL;DR: This chapter discusses decision problems and Complexity over a Ring and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra: Complexity Aspects.

Abstract: 1 Introduction.- 2 Definitions and First Properties of Computation.- 3 Computation over a Ring.- 4 Decision Problems and Complexity over a Ring.- 5 The Class NP and NP-Complete Problems.- 6 Integer Machines.- 7 Algebraic Settings for the Problem "P ? NP?".- 8 Newton's Method.- 9 Fundamental Theorem of Algebra: Complexity Aspects.- 10 Bezout's Theorem.- 11 Condition Numbers and the Loss of Precision of Linear Equations.- 12 The Condition Number for Nonlinear Problems.- 13 The Condition Number in ?(H(d).- 14 Complexity and the Condition Number.- 15 Linear Programming.- 16 Deterministic Lower Bounds.- 17 Probabilistic Machines.- 18 Parallel Computations.- 19 Some Separations of Complexity Classes.- 20 Weak Machines.- 21 Additive Machines.- 22 Nonuniform Complexity Classes.- 23 Descriptive Complexity.- References.

1,594 citations

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1,459 citations

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01 Jan 1966

TL;DR: In this paper, the Riemann-Roch theorem for algebraic manifolds and complex analytic vector bundles is presented. But the authors do not consider the complexity of complex analytic line bundles.

Abstract: Introduction Chapter 1: Preparatory material 1. Multiplicative sequences 2. Sheaves 3. Fibre bundles 4. Characteristic classes Chapter 2: The cobordism ring 5. Pontrjagin numbers 6. The ring /ss(/Omega) /oplus //Varrho 7. The cobordism ring /omega 8. The index of a 4k-dimensional manifold 9. The virtual index Chapter 3: The Todd genus 10. Definiton of the Todd genus 11. The virutal generalised Todd genus 12. The t-characteristic of a GL(q, C)-bundle 13. Split manifolds and splitting methods 14. Multiplicative properties of the Todd genus Chapter 4: The Riemann-Roch theorem for algebraic manifolds 15. Cohomology of Compact complex manifolds 16. Further properties of the (/chi)x characteristics 17. The virtual (/chi)x characteristics 18. Some fundamental theorems of Kodaira 19. The virtual (/chi)x characteristics for algebraic manifolds 20. The Riemann-Roch theorem for algebraic manifolds and complex analytic line bundles 21. The Riemann-Roch theorem for algebraic manifolds and complex analytic vector bundles Appendix 1 by R.L.E. Schwarzenberger 22. Applications of the Riemann-Roch theorem 23. The Riemann-Roch theorem of Grothendieck 24. The Grothendieck ring of continuous vector bundles 25. The Atijah-Singer index theorem 26. Integrality theorems for differentiable manifolds Appendix 2 by A. Borel A spectral sequence for complex analytic bundles Bibliography Index

1,459 citations

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TL;DR: The first of a series of papers dealing with the representation theory of artin algebras is presented in this paper, where the main purpose is to develop terminology and background material which will be used in the rest of the papers in the series.

Abstract: This is the first of a series of papers dealing with the representation theory of artin algebras, where by an artin algebra we mean an artin ring having the property that its center is an artin ring and λ is a finitely generated module over its center. The over all purpose of this paper is to develop terminology and background material which will be used in the rest of the papers in the series. While it is undoubtedly true that much of this material can be found in the literature or easily deduced from results already in the literature, the particular development presented here appears to be new and is especially well suited as a foundation for the papers to come.

1,267 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, Soergel et al. showed that the block of the Bernstein-Gelfand-gelfand category O that corresponds to any fixed central character is a Koszul ring and the dual of that ring governs a certain subcategory of the category O again.

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to work out a concrete example as well as to provide the general pattern of applications of Koszul duality to repre- sentation theory. The paper consists of three parts relatively independent of each other. The first part gives a reasonably selfcontained introduction to Koszul rings and Koszul duality. Koszul rings are certain Z-graded rings with particularly nice homological properties which involve a kind of duality. Thus, to a Koszul ring one associates naturally the dual Koszul ring. The second part is devoted to an application to representation theory of semisimple Lie algebras. We show License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see http://www.ams.org/journal-terms-of-use KOSZUL DUALITY PATTERNS 527 that the block of the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand category O that corresponds to any fixed central character is governed by the Koszul ring. Moreover, the dual of that ring governs a certain subcategory of the category O again. This generalizes the selfduality theorem conjectured by Beilinson and Ginsburg in 1986 and proved by Soergel in 1990. In the third part we study certain cate- gories of mixed perverse sheaves on a variety stratified by affine linear spaces. We provide a general criterion for such a category to be governed by a Koszul ring. In the flag variety case this reduces to the setup of part two. In the more general case of affine flag manifolds and affine Grassmannians the criterion should yield interesting results about representations of quantum groups and affine Lie algebras. Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 E-mail address: sasha@math.mit.edu Department of Mathematics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 E-mail address: ginzburg@math.uchicago.edu Max-Planck-Institut fur Mathematik, Gottfried-Claren-Strase 26, D-53 Bonn 3, Germany Current address: Mathematisches Institut, Universitat Freiburg, Albertstrase 23b, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany E-mail address: soergel@sun1.mathematik.uni-freiburg.de License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see http://www.ams.org/journal-terms-of-use

1,119 citations