Topic

# Rise time

About: Rise time is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4748 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 47512 citation(s).

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TL;DR: It is found possible to define delay time and rise time in such a way that these quantities can be computed very simply from the Laplace system function of the network.

Abstract: When the transient response of a linear network to an applied unit step function consists of a monotonic rise to a final constant value, it is found possible to define delay time and rise time in such a way that these quantities can be computed very simply from the Laplace system function of the network. The usefulness of the new definitions is illustrated by applications to low pass, multi‐stage wideband amplifiers for which a number of general theorems are proved. In addition, an investigation of a certain class of two‐terminal interstage networks is made in an endeavor to find the network giving the highest possible gain—rise time quotient consistent with a monotonic transient response to a step function.

1,646 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the magnetic flux density due to first and subsequent lightning return strokes is calculated for distances from the strokes of 0.5 to 200 km, and it is shown that, contrary to the claims of Norinder and co-workers, the magnetic field rise time for a stroke within a distance of about 20 km is essentially unrelated to the current rise time in the stroke channel base.

Abstract: The magnetic flux density due to first and to subsequent lightning return strokes is calculated for distances from the strokes of 0.5 to 200 km. The basis of the calculations is various assumed forms for the channel current as a function of time and of channel height. Two new channel-current models are introduced for first strokes and one new model for subsequent strokes, in addition to the use of the models of Bruce and Golde and of Dennis and Pierce. The new models provide a better approximation to the real lightning channel current than do the previous models, but all models considered yield radiation fields far from the channel that are consistent with experiment. It is shown that, contrary to the claims of Norinder and co-workers, the magnetic-field rise time for a stroke within a distance of about 20 km is essentially unrelated to the current rise time in the stroke channel base. For subsequent strokes, field rise times of many tens of microseconds can be due to current rise times shorter than a microsecond. On the other hand, field rise times for subsequent strokes may be strongly influenced by current fall times. The analysis of Norinder and co-workers which relates peak channelbase current to peak magnetic field yields values of current that can be considered accurate to about a factor of 2.

390 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the photocurrent response of dye-sensitized, porous nanocrystalline TiO2 cells was studied as a function of light intensity, in both the time domain (photocurrent transient measurements) and the frequency domain (intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy).

Abstract: The photocurrent response of dye-sensitized, porous nanocrystalline TiO2 cells was studied as a function of light intensity, in both the time domain (photocurrent transient measurements) and the frequency domain (intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy). The photocurrent transients are characterized by a fast and a slow component. The rise time of the transients was in the range of milliseconds to seconds and exhibited a power law dependence on light intensity with an exponent of −0.6 to −0.8. The response to a modulated light intensity is characterized by a depressed semicircle in the complex plane. The time constant obtained from these spectra exhibits the same power law dependence on light intensity. The transient response of these cells is dominated by electron transport in the TiO2 film, and the results are shown to be consistent with a diffusion model where the diffusion coefficient for electrons in the particle network is a function of the light intensity.

366 citations

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TL;DR: Attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy is used to resolve the electron transfer from valence to conduction band states in semiconductors, and distinguished the electron dynamics—which proceed faster than a quadrillionth of a second after laser excitation—from the comparatively slower lattice motion of the silicon atomic nuclei.

Abstract: Electron transfer from valence to conduction band states in semiconductors is the basis of modern electronics. Here, attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy is used to resolve this process in silicon in real time. Electrons injected into the conduction band by few-cycle laser pulses alter the silicon XUV absorption spectrum in sharp steps synchronized with the laser electric field oscillations. The observed ~450-attosecond step rise time provides an upper limit for the carrier-induced band-gap reduction and the electron-electron scattering time in the conduction band. This electronic response is separated from the subsequent band-gap modifications due to lattice motion, which occurs on a time scale of 60 ± 10 femtoseconds, characteristic of the fastest optical phonon. Quantum dynamical simulations interpret the carrier injection step as light-field–induced electron tunneling.

366 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation methodology was proposed, which combines a deterministic approach at low frequencies ( f 1 Hz) and incorporates spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture speed, and rise time.

Abstract: This paper describes refinements to the hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation methodology of Graves and Pitarka (2004), which combines a deterministic approach at low frequencies ( f 1 Hz). In our approach, fault rupture is represented kinematically and incorporates spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture speed, and rise time. The prescribed slip distribution is constrained to follow an inverse wavenumber-squared fall-off and the average rupture speed is set at 80% of the local shear-wave velocity, which is then adjusted such that the rupture propagates faster in regions of high slip and slower in regions of low slip. We use a Kostrov-like slip-rate function having a rise time proportional to the square root of slip, with the average rise time across the entire fault constrained empirically. Recent observations from large surface rupturing earthquakes indicate a reduction of rupture propagation speed and lengthening of rise time in the near surface, which we model by applying a 70% reduction of the rupture speed and increasing the rise time by a factor of 2 in a zone extending from the surface to a depth of 5 km. We demonstrate the fidelity of the technique by modeling the strong-motion recordings from the Imperial Valley, Loma Prieta, Landers, and Northridge earthquakes.

336 citations