About: RNA is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 111695 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 5475262 citation(s). The topic is also known as: ribonucleic acid.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Apr 1987-Analytical Biochemistry
TL;DR: A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described, providing a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h.
Abstract: A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
27 Nov 1979-Biochemistry
TL;DR: In this article, the rat pancreas RNA was used as a source for the purification of alpha-amylase messenger ribonucleic acid (RBA) using 2-mercaptoethanol.
Abstract: Intact ribonucleic acid (RNA) has been prepared from tissues rich in ribonuclease such as the rat pancreas by efficient homogenization in a 4 M solution of the potent protein denaturant guanidinium thiocyanate plus 0.1 M 2-mercaptoethanol to break protein disulfide bonds. The RNA was isolated free of protein by ethanol precipitation or by sedimentation through cesium chloride. Rat pancreas RNA obtained by these means has been used as a source for the purification of alpha-amylase messenger ribonucleic acid.
TL;DR: To their surprise, it was found that double-stranded RNA was substantially more effective at producing interference than was either strand individually, arguing against stochiometric interference with endogenous mRNA and suggesting that there could be a catalytic or amplification component in the interference process.
Abstract: Experimental introduction of RNA into cells can be used in certain biological systems to interfere with the function of an endogenous gene Such effects have been proposed to result from a simple antisense mechanism that depends on hybridization between the injected RNA and endogenous messenger RNA transcripts RNA interference has been used in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to manipulate gene expression Here we investigate the requirements for structure and delivery of the interfering RNA To our surprise, we found that double-stranded RNA was substantially more effective at producing interference than was either strand individually After injection into adult animals, purified single strands had at most a modest effect, whereas double-stranded mixtures caused potent and specific interference The effects of this interference were evident in both the injected animals and their progeny Only a few molecules of injected double-stranded RNA were required per affected cell, arguing against stochiometric interference with endogenous mRNA and suggesting that there could be a catalytic or amplification component in the interference process
TL;DR: 21-nucleotide siRNA duplexes provide a new tool for studying gene function in mammalian cells and may eventually be used as gene-specific therapeutics.
Abstract: RNA interference (RNAi) is the process of sequence-specific, post-transcriptional gene silencing in animals and plants, initiated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is homologous in sequence to the silenced gene. The mediators of sequence-specific messenger RNA degradation are 21- and 22-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) generated by ribonuclease III cleavage from longer dsRNAs. Here we show that 21-nucleotide siRNA duplexes specifically suppress expression of endogenous and heterologous genes in different mammalian cell lines, including human embryonic kidney (293) and HeLa cells. Therefore, 21-nucleotide siRNA duplexes provide a new tool for studying gene function in mammalian cells and may eventually be used as gene-specific therapeutics.
07 May 2007-Nature Cell Biology
TL;DR: It is shown that exosomes contain both mRNA and microRNA, which can be delivered to another cell, and can be functional in this new location, and it is proposed that this RNA is called “exosomal shuttle RNA” (esRNA).
Abstract: Exosomes are vesicles of endocytic origin released by many cells. These vesicles can mediate communication between cells, facilitating processes such as antigen presentation. Here, we show that exosomes from a mouse and a human mast cell line (MC/9 and HMC-1, respectively), as well as primary bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells, contain RNA. Microarray assessments revealed the presence of mRNA from approximately 1300 genes, many of which are not present in the cytoplasm of the donor cell. In vitro translation proved that the exosome mRNAs were functional. Quality control RNA analysis of total RNA derived from exosomes also revealed presence of small RNAs, including microRNAs. The RNA from mast cell exosomes is transferable to other mouse and human mast cells. After transfer of mouse exosomal RNA to human mast cells, new mouse proteins were found in the recipient cells, indicating that transferred exosomal mRNA can be translated after entering another cell. In summary, we show that exosomes contain both mRNA and microRNA, which can be delivered to another cell, and can be functional in this new location. We propose that this RNA is called "exosomal shuttle RNA" (esRNA).
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