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Robotic arm

About: Robotic arm is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 27733 publications have been published within this topic receiving 239653 citations. The topic is also known as: robot arm.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reformulated the manipulator con trol problem as direct control of manipulator motion in operational space—the space in which the task is originally described—rather than as control of the task's corresponding joint space motion obtained only after geometric and geometric transformation.
Abstract: This paper presents a unique real-time obstacle avoidance approach for manipulators and mobile robots based on the artificial potential field concept. Collision avoidance, tradi tionally considered a high level planning problem, can be effectively distributed between different levels of control, al lowing real-time robot operations in a complex environment. This method has been extended to moving obstacles by using a time-varying artificial patential field. We have applied this obstacle avoidance scheme to robot arm mechanisms and have used a new approach to the general problem of real-time manipulator control. We reformulated the manipulator con trol problem as direct control of manipulator motion in oper ational space—the space in which the task is originally described—rather than as control of the task's corresponding joint space motion obtained only after geometric and kine matic transformation. Outside the obstacles' regions of influ ence, we caused the end effector to move in a straight line with an...

6,515 citations

Book
01 Jul 1990
TL;DR: This paper reformulated the manipulator control problem as direct control of manipulator motion in operational space-the space in which the task is originally described-rather than as control of the task's corresponding joint space motion obtained only after geometric and kinematic transformation.
Abstract: This paper presents a unique real-time obstacle avoidance approach for manipulators and mobile robots based on the artificial potential field concept. Collision avoidance, tradi tionally considered a high level planning problem, can be effectively distributed between different levels of control, al lowing real-time robot operations in a complex environment. This method has been extended to moving obstacles by using a time-varying artificial patential field. We have applied this obstacle avoidance scheme to robot arm mechanisms and have used a new approach to the general problem of real-time manipulator control. We reformulated the manipulator con trol problem as direct control of manipulator motion in oper ational space—the space in which the task is originally described—rather than as control of the task's corresponding joint space motion obtained only after geometric and kine matic transformation. Outside the obstacles' regions of influ ence, we caused the end effector to move in a straight line with an...

3,063 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 May 2012-Nature
TL;DR: The results demonstrate the feasibility for people with tetraplegia, years after injury to the central nervous system, to recreate useful multidimensional control of complex devices directly from a small sample of neural signals.
Abstract: Two people with long-standing tetraplegia use neural interface system-based control of a robotic arm to perform three-dimensional reach and grasp movements. John Donoghue and colleagues have previously demonstrated that people with tetraplegia can learn to use neural signals from the motor cortex to control a computer cursor. Work from another lab has also shown that monkeys can learn to use such signals to feed themselves with a robotic arm. Now, Donoghue and colleagues have advanced the technology to a level at which two people with long-standing paralysis — a 58-year-old woman and a 66-year-old man — are able to use a neural interface to direct a robotic arm to reach for and grasp objects. One subject was able to learn to pick up and drink from a bottle using a device implanted 5 years earlier, demonstrating not only that subjects can use the brain–machine interface, but also that it has potential longevity. Paralysis following spinal cord injury, brainstem stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other disorders can disconnect the brain from the body, eliminating the ability to perform volitional movements. A neural interface system1,2,3,4,5 could restore mobility and independence for people with paralysis by translating neuronal activity directly into control signals for assistive devices. We have previously shown that people with long-standing tetraplegia can use a neural interface system to move and click a computer cursor and to control physical devices6,7,8. Able-bodied monkeys have used a neural interface system to control a robotic arm9, but it is unknown whether people with profound upper extremity paralysis or limb loss could use cortical neuronal ensemble signals to direct useful arm actions. Here we demonstrate the ability of two people with long-standing tetraplegia to use neural interface system-based control of a robotic arm to perform three-dimensional reach and grasp movements. Participants controlled the arm and hand over a broad space without explicit training, using signals decoded from a small, local population of motor cortex (MI) neurons recorded from a 96-channel microelectrode array. One of the study participants, implanted with the sensor 5 years earlier, also used a robotic arm to drink coffee from a bottle. Although robotic reach and grasp actions were not as fast or accurate as those of an able-bodied person, our results demonstrate the feasibility for people with tetraplegia, years after injury to the central nervous system, to recreate useful multidimensional control of complex devices directly from a small sample of neural signals.

2,181 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Jun 2008-Nature
TL;DR: A system that permits embodied prosthetic control is described and monkeys (Macaca mulatta) use their motor cortical activity to control a mechanized arm replica in a self-feeding task, and this demonstration of multi-degree-of-freedom embodied prosthetics control paves the way towards the development of dexterous prosthetic devices that could ultimately achieve arm and hand function at a near-natural level.
Abstract: Brain-machine interfaces have mostly been used previously to move cursors on computer displays. Now experiments on macaque monkeys show that brain activity signals can control a multi-jointed prosthetic device in real-time. The monkeys used motor cortical activity to control a human-like prosthetic arm in a self-feeding task, with a greater sophistication of control than previously possible. This work could be important for the development of more practical neuro-prosthetic devices in the future. A system where monkeys use their motor cortical activity to control a robotic arm in a real-time self-feeding task, showing a significantly greater sophisitication of control than in previous studies, is demonstrated. This work could be important for the development of more practical neuro-prosthetic devices in the future. Arm movement is well represented in populations of neurons recorded from the motor cortex1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Cortical activity patterns have been used in the new field of brain–machine interfaces8,9,10,11 to show how cursors on computer displays can be moved in two- and three-dimensional space12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22. Although the ability to move a cursor can be useful in its own right, this technology could be applied to restore arm and hand function for amputees and paralysed persons. However, the use of cortical signals to control a multi-jointed prosthetic device for direct real-time interaction with the physical environment (‘embodiment’) has not been demonstrated. Here we describe a system that permits embodied prosthetic control; we show how monkeys (Macaca mulatta) use their motor cortical activity to control a mechanized arm replica in a self-feeding task. In addition to the three dimensions of movement, the subjects’ cortical signals also proportionally controlled a gripper on the end of the arm. Owing to the physical interaction between the monkey, the robotic arm and objects in the workspace, this new task presented a higher level of difficulty than previous virtual (cursor-control) experiments. Apart from an example of simple one-dimensional control23, previous experiments have lacked physical interaction even in cases where a robotic arm16,19,24 or hand20 was included in the control loop, because the subjects did not use it to interact with physical objects—an interaction that cannot be fully simulated. This demonstration of multi-degree-of-freedom embodied prosthetic control paves the way towards the development of dexterous prosthetic devices that could ultimately achieve arm and hand function at a near-natural level.

1,579 citations

Patent
04 Aug 1993
TL;DR: In this article, a robotic system that moves a surgical instrument in response to the actuation of a foot pedal that can be operated by the foot of a surgeon is described. But it is not shown how to operate the foot pedal.
Abstract: A robotic system that moves a surgical instrument in response to the actuation of a foot pedal that can be operated by the foot of a surgeon. The robotic system has an end effector that is adapted to hold a surgical instrument such as an endoscope. The end effector is coupled to a robotic arm assembly which can move the endoscope relative to the patient. The system includes a computer which controls the movement of the robotic arm in response to input signals received from the foot pedal.

1,509 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20241
2023270
2022653
2021925
20202,245
20192,858