About: Rossby wave is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5028 publications have been published within this topic receiving 161239 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A review of tropical-extratropical teleconnections with a focus on developments over the Tropical Oceans-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) decade and the current state of understanding can be found in this article.
Abstract: The primary focus of this review is tropical-extratropical interactions and especially the issues involved in determining the response of the extratropical atmosphere to tropical forcing associated with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The review encompasses observations, empirical studies, theory and modeling of the extratropical teleconnections with a focus on developments over the Tropical Oceans-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) decade and the current state of understanding. In the tropical atmosphere, anomalous SSTs force anomalies in convection and large-scale overturning with subsidence in the descending branch of the local Hadley circulation. The resulting strong upper tropospheric divergence in the tropics and convergence in the subtropics act as a Rossby wave source. The climatological stationary planetary waves and associated jet streams, especially in the northern hemisphere, can make the total Rossby wave sources somewhat insensitive to the position of the tropical heating that induces them and thus can create preferred teleconnection response patterns, such as the Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern. However, a number of factors influence the dispersion and propagation of Rossby waves through the atmosphere, including zonal asymmetries in the climatological state, transients, and baroclinic and nonlinear effects. Internal midlatitude sources can amplify perturbations. Observations, modeling, and theory have clearly shown how storm tracks change in response to changes in quasi-stationary waves and how these changes generally feedback to maintain or strengthen the dominant perturbations through vorticity and momentum transports. The response of the extratropical atmosphere naturally induces changes in the underlying surface, so that there are changes in extratropical SSTs and changes in land surface hydrology and moisture availability that can feedback and influence the total response. Land surface processes are believed to be especially important in spring and summer. Anomalous SSTs and tropical forcing have tended to be strongest in the northern winter, and teleconnections in the southern hemisphere are weaker and more variable and thus more inclined to be masked by natural variability. Occasional strong forcing in seasons other than winter can produce strong and identifiable signals in the northern hemisphere and, because the noise of natural variability is less, the signal-to-noise ratio can be large. The relative importance of tropical versus extratropical SST forcings has been established through numerical experiments with atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). Predictability of anomalous circulation and associated surface temperature and precipitation in the extratropics is somewhat limited by the difficulty of finding a modest signal embedded in the high level of noise from natural variability in the extratropics, and the complexity and variety of the possible feedbacks. Accordingly, ensembles of AGCM runs and time averaging are needed to identify signals and make predictions. Strong anomalous tropical forcing provides opportunities for skillful forecasts, and the accuracy and usefulness of forecasts is expected to improve as the ability to forecast the anomalous SSTs improves, as models improve, and as the information available from the mean and the spread of ensemble forecasts is better utilized.
TL;DR: In this paper, an automated procedure for identifying and tracking mesoscale features based on their SSH signatures yields 35,891 eddies with average lifetime of 32 weeks and an average propagation distance of 550 km.
Abstract: Sixteen years of sea-surface height (SSH) fields constructed by merging the measurements from two simultaneously operating altimeters are analyzed to investigate mesoscale variability in the global ocean The prevalence of coherent mesoscale features (referred to here as “eddies”) with radius scales of O(100 km) is readily apparent in these high-resolution SSH fields An automated procedure for identifying and tracking mesoscale features based on their SSH signatures yields 35,891 eddies with lifetimes ⩾16 weeks These long-lived eddies, comprising approximately 115 million individual eddy observations, have an average lifetime of 32 weeks and an average propagation distance of 550 km Their mean amplitude and a speed-based radius scale as defined by the automated procedure are 8 cm and 90 km, respectively The tracked eddies are found to originate nearly everywhere in the World Ocean, consistent with previous conclusions that virtually all of the World Ocean is baroclinically unstable Overall, there is a slight preference for cyclonic eddies However, there is a preference for the eddies with long lifetimes and large propagation distances to be anticyclonic In the southern hemisphere, the distributions of the amplitudes and rotational speeds of eddies are more skewed toward large values for cyclonic eddies than for anticyclonic eddies As a result, eddies with amplitudes >10 cm and rotational speeds >20 cm s −1 are preferentially cyclonic in the southern hemisphere By contrast, there is a slight preference for anticyclonic eddies for nearly all amplitudes and rotational speeds in the northern hemisphere On average, there is no evidence of anisotropy of these eddies Their average shape is well represented as Gaussian within the central 2/3 of the eddy, but the implied radius of maximum rotational speed is 64% smaller than the observed radius of maximum speed In part because of this mismatch between the radii of maximum axial speed in the observations and the Gaussian approximation, a case is made that a quadratic function that is a very close approximation of the mode profile of the eddy (ie, the most frequently occurring value at each radius) is a better representation of the composite shape of the eddies This would imply that the relative vorticity is nearly constant within the interiors of most eddies, ie, the fluid motion consists approximately of solid-body rotation Perhaps the most significant conclusion of this study is that essentially all of the observed mesoscale features outside of the tropical band 20°S–20°N are nonlinear by the metric U / c , where U is the maximum circum-average geostrophic speed within the eddy interior and c is the translation speed of the eddy A value of U / c > 1 implies that there is trapped fluid within the eddy interior Many of the extratropical eddies are highly nonlinear, with 48% having U / c > 5 and 21% having U / c > 10 Even in the tropics, approximately 90% of the observed mesoscale features are nonlinear by this measure Two other nondimensional parameters also indicate strong degrees of nonlinearity in the tracked eddies The distributions of all three measures of nonlinearity are more skewed toward large values for cyclonic eddies than for anticyclonic eddies in the southern hemisphere extratropics but the opposite is found in the northern hemisphere extratropics There is thus a preference for highly nonlinear extratropical eddies to be cyclonic in the southern hemisphere but anticyclonic in the northern hemisphere Further evidence in support of the interpretation of the observed features as nonlinear eddies is the fact that they propagate nearly due west with small opposing meridional deflections of cyclones and anticyclones (poleward and equatorward, respectively) and with propagation speeds that are nearly equal to the long baroclinic Rossby wave phase speed These characteristics are consistent with theoretical expectations for large, nonlinear eddies While there is no apparent dependence of propagation speed on eddy polarity, the eddy speeds relative to the local long Rossby wave phase speeds are found to be about 20% faster in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere The distributions of the propagation directions of cyclones and anticyclones are essentially the same, except mirrored about a central azimuth angle of about 15° equatorward This small, but we believe statistically significant, equatorward rotation of the central azimuth may be evidence of the effects of ambient currents (meridional advection or the effects of vertical shear on the potential vorticity gradient vector) on the propagation directions of the eddies While the results presented here are persuasive evidence that most of the observed westward-propagating SSH variability consists of isolated nonlinear mesoscale eddies, it is shown that the eddy propagation speeds are about 25% slower than the westward propagation speeds of features in the SSH field that have scales larger than those of the tracked eddies This scale dependence of the propagation speed may be evidence for the existence of dispersion and the presence of features that obey linear Rossby wave dynamics and have larger scales and faster propagation speeds than the nonlinear eddies The amplitudes of these larger-scale signals are evidently smaller than those of the mesoscale eddy field since they are not easily isolated from the energetic nonlinear eddies
TL;DR: In this paper, the first baroclinic gravity-wave phase speed c1 and the Rossby radius of deformation l1 are computed from climatological average temperature and salinity profiles.
Abstract: Global 1 83 18 climatologies of the first baroclinic gravity-wave phase speed c1 and the Rossby radius of deformation l1 are computed from climatological average temperature and salinity profiles. These new atlases are compared with previously published 5 83 58 coarse resolution maps of l1 for the Northern Hemisphere and the South Atlantic and with a 1 83 18 fine-resolution map of c1 for the tropical Pacific. It is concluded that the methods used in these earlier estimates yield values that are biased systematically low by 5%‐15% owing to seemingly minor computational errors. Geographical variations in the new high-resolution maps of c1 and l1 are discussed in terms of a WKB approximation that elucidates the effects of earth rotation, stratification, and water depth on these quantities. It is shown that the effects of temporal variations of the stratification can be neglected in the estimation of c1 and l1 at any particular location in the World Ocean. This is rationalized from consideration of the WKB approximation.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed daily fields of 500-hPa heights from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis over N. America and the N. Atlantic to assess changes in north-south (Rossby) wave characteristics associated with Arctic amplification and the relaxation of poleward thickness gradients.
Abstract:  Arctic amplification (AA) – the observed enhanced warming in high northern latitudes relative to the northern hemisphere – is evident in lower-tropospheric temperatures and in 1000-to-500 hPa thicknesses. Daily fields of 500 hPa heights from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis are analyzed over N. America and the N. Atlantic to assess changes in north-south (Rossby) wave characteristics associated with AA and the relaxation of poleward thickness gradients. Two effects are identified that each contribute to a slower eastward progression of Rossby waves in the upper-level flow: 1) weakened zonal winds, and 2) increased wave amplitude. These effects are particularly evident in autumn and winter consistent with sea-ice loss, but are also apparent in summer, possibly related to earlier snow melt on high-latitude land. Slower progression of upper-level waves would cause associated weather patterns in mid-latitudes to be more persistent, which may lead to an increased probability of extreme weather events that result from prolonged conditions, such as drought, flooding, cold spells, and heat waves.
TL;DR: In this paper, a vorticity equation model is used to diagnose the relationship between tropical convective heating and the upper tropospheric rotational wind field, and it is shown that the Rossby wave source can be very different from the simple −fD source often used.
Abstract: Tropical convective heating is balanced on the large scale by the adiabatic cooling of ascent. The horizontal divergence of the wind above this heating may be viewed as driving the upper tropospheric rotational wind field. A vorticity equation model is used to diagnose this relationship. It is shown that because of the advection of vorticity by the divergent component of the flow, the Rossby wave source can be very different from the simple −fD source often used. In particular, an equatorial region of divergence situated in easterly winds can lead to a Rossby wave source in the subtropical westerlies where it is extremely effective. This part of the source can be relatively insensitive to the longitudinal position of the equatorial divergence. A divergence field which is asymmetric about the equator can lead to a quite symmetric Rossby wave source. For a steady frictionless flow the Rossby wave source averaged over regions within closed streamfunction or absolute vorticity contours is, under cert...