Topic

# Roundness (object)

About: Roundness (object) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3014 publications have been published within this topic receiving 23570 citations.

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TL;DR: A new roundness scale is proposed defined by six roundness classes, defined by two sets of clay models prepared to characterize each roundness class and photographed to determine the roundness of a particle by comparison.

Abstract: A new roundness scale is proposed. This scale is defined by six roundness classes. Two sets of clay models were prepared to characterize each roundness class. One set shows a high sphericity, the other a low sphericity. Photographs of these models are used to determine the roundness of a particle by comparison.

1,323 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of size, density, shape, and roundness on the settling velocity of natural sediment were analyzed in terms of four non-dimensional parameters, namely, the dimensionless nominal diameter D*, W*, the Corey shape factor, and the Powers roundness index.

Abstract: Data from 14 previous experimental studies were used to develop an empirical equation that accounts for the effects of size, density, shape, and roundness on the settling velocity of natural sediment. This analysis was done in terms of four nondimensional parameters, namely, the dimensionless nominal diameter D*, the dimensionless settling velocity W*, the Corey shape factor, and the Powers roundness index. For high D* (large or dense particles), changes in roundness and shape factor have similar magnitude effects on settling velocity. Roundness varies much less for naturally occuring grains, however, and hence is a less important control than shape. For a typical coarse sand with a Powers roundness of 3.5 and a Corey shape factor of 0.7, the settling velocity is about 0.68 that of a sphere of the same D*, with shape and roundness effects contributing about equally to the settling velocity reduction. At low D* the reduction in settling velocity due to either shape or roundness is much less. Moreover, at low D*, low roundness causes a greater decrease in settling velocity at low shape factor values than at high shape factor values. This appears to be due to the increased surface drag on the flatter grains.

778 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that the most important aspects of particle form are represented by the I/L ratio (elongation ratio) and S/I ratio (flatness ratio), which can be used to classify particles in terms of 25 form classes.

Abstract: Shape is a fundamental property of all objects, including sedimentary particles, but it remains one of the most difficult to characterize and quantify for all but the simplest of shapes. Despite a large literature on the subject, there remains widespread confusion regarding the meaning and relative value of different measures of particle shape. This paper re-examines the basic concepts of particle shape and suggests a number of new and modified methods which are widely applicable to a range of sedimentological problems; it is shown that the most important aspects of particle form are represented by the I/L ratio (elongation ratio) and S/I ratio (flatness ratio). A combination of these two ratios can be used to classify particles in terms of 25 form classes. A method of obtaining a quantitative measure of particle roundness using simple image analysis software is described, and a new visual roundness comparator is presented. It is recommended that measurements of both roundness and circularity (a proxy measure of sphericity) are made on grain images in three orthogonal orientations and average values calculated for each particle. A further shape property, irregularity, is defined and a classification scheme proposed for use in describing and comparing irregular or branching sedimentary particles such as chert and coral.

437 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the shape of a rock particle can be expressed in terms of three independent properties: form (overall shape), roundness (large-scale smoothness), and surface texture.

Abstract: An attempt was made to distinguish aspects of the shape of rock particles, and to discover by analysis and empirical considerations the most appropriate parameters for describing these aspects. The shape of a rock particle can be expressed in terms of three independent properties: form (overall shape), roundness (large-scale smoothness) and surface texture. These form a three-tiered hierarchy of observational scale, and of response to geological processes. Form can be represented by only two independent measures from the three orthogonal axes normally measured. Of the four pairs of independent measures commonly used for bivariate plots, the two sphericity/shape factor pairs appear to be more efficient discriminators than simple axial ratios. Of the two, the most desirable pair is the maximum projection sphericity and oblate-prolate index for both measures show an arithmetic normal distribution for the range investigated. A measure of form that is independent of the three orthogonal axes, and measures derived from them, is the angularity measure of Lees. Roundness has measures of three types, those estimating average roundness of corners, those based on the sharpest corner, and a measure of convexity in the particle outline. Although each type measures a different aspect, they are not independent of each other. Only roundness from corners is considered in detail. As neither average nor sharpest corner measures are inherently more objective or more quantitative, purpose should determine which is more appropriate. Of the visual comparison charts for average roundness, Krumbein's appears best. The Modified Wentworth roundness is the most satisfactory for estimating roundness from the sharpest corner. The Cailleux Roundness index should not be used because it includes aspects of roundness and form. Shape is a difficult parameter to use for solving sedimentological problems. Even the best of the commonly used procedures are limited by observational subjectivity and a low discriminating power. Unambiguous interpretation of particle shape in terms of source material and processes will always be made difficult by the large number of natural variables and their interactions. For ancient sediments satisfactory results can be expected only from carefully planned studies or rather unusual geological situations.

414 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the optimization of CNC turning operation parameters for SKD11 (JIS) using the Grey relational analysis method and found the degree of influence for each controllable process factor onto individual quality targets.

Abstract: This study investigated the optimization of CNC turning operation parameters for SKD11 (JIS) using the Grey relational analysis method. Nine experimental runs based on an orthogonal array of Taguchi method were performed. The surface properties of roughness average and roughness maximum as well as the roundness were selected as the quality targets. An optimal parameter combination of the turning operation was obtained via Grey relational analysis. By analyzing the Grey relational grade matrix, the degree of influence for each controllable process factor onto individual quality targets can be found. The depth of cut was identified to be the most influence on the roughness average and the cutting speed is the most influential factor to the roughness maximum and the roundness. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also applied to identify the most significant factor; the depth of cut is the most significant controlled factors for the turning operations according to the weighted sum grade of the roughness average, roughness maximum and roundness.

281 citations