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Rural area

About: Rural area is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 54441 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 815420 citation(s). The topic is also known as: countryside & rural place.

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01 Jan 1969
Abstract: Studying the economy of cities is relevant for a number of reasons. First of all, because most of the planet's population is grouped in them. Secondly, because they concentrate the main social problems that humanity has and, finally, because they are also the greatest source of creativity, innovation and development opportunities to solve those problems. Cities group companies and people who interact with each other both within their scope and with their peers in other cities. The general framework in which the current economy operates is, in general, the city and if the latter does not create the conditions for the economic activity to be sustainable, not only the city, but the country itself will suffer the consequences.

4,507 citations

01 Jan 1983
Abstract: Rural poverty is often unseen or misperceived by outsiders. Dr Chambers contends that researchers, scientists, administrators and fieldworkers rarely appreciate the richness and validity of rural people's knowledge or the hidden nature of rural poverty. This is a challenging book for all concerned with rural development, as practitioners, academics, students or researchers.

3,194 citations

Posted Content
Abstract: An economic behavioral model of rural urban migration is formulated which represents a realistic modification and extension of the simple wage differential approach commonly found in the literature and this probablistic approach is incorporated into a rigorous model of the determinants of urban labor demand and supply which when given values for the crucial parameters can be used among other things to estimate the equilibrium proportion of the urban labor force that is not absorbed by the modern industrial economy. Additionally the model will provide a convenient framework for analyzing the implications of alternative policies designed to alleviate unemployment by varying 1 or more of the principal parameters. A more realistic picture of labor migration in less developed nations would be one that views migration as a 2 stage phenomenon: in the 1st stage the unskilled rural worker migrates to an urban area and spends a certain period of time in the "urban traditional" sector; and the 2nd stage is reached with the eventual attainment of a more permanent modern sector job. This 2 stage process allows one to ask some basic questions concerning the decision to migrate the proportionate size of the urban traditional sector and the implications of accelerated industrial growth and/or alternative rural urban real income differentials on labor participation in the modern economy. In the model the decision to migrate from rural to urban areas is functionally related to 2 principal variables: the urban rural real income differential and the probability of obtaining an urban job. To understand better the nature of the supply function to be used in the overall model of the determinants of urban unemployment it is helpful to state the underlying behavioral assumptions of the model of rural urban migration: it is assumed that the percentage change in the urban labor force as a result of migration during any period is governed by the differential between the discounted streams of expected urban and rural real income expressed as percentage of the discounted stream of expected rural real income; the planning horizon for each worker is identical; the fixed costs of migration are identical for all workers; and the discount factor is constant over the planning horizon and identical for all potential migrants. The model demonstrates the overall net impact of allowing these parameters to vary over time and/or choosing alternative values. It underlines in a simple and plausible way the interdependent effects of industrial expansion productivity growth and the differential expected real earnings capacity of urban versus rural activities on the size and rate of increase in labor migration and therefore ultimately on the occupational distribution of the urban labor force. Possibly the most significant policy implication that emerged from the model is the great difficulty of substantially reducing the size of the urban traditional sector without a concentrated effort at making rural life more attractive.

2,797 citations

22 Jul 2005
TL;DR: This report of the WHO Multi-country Study on Womens Health and Domestic Violence against Women analyses data collected from over 24 000 women in 10 countries representing diverse cultural geographical and urban/rural settings.
Abstract: This report of the WHO Multi-country Study on Womens Health and Domestic Violence against Women analyses data collected from over 24 000 women in 10 countries representing diverse cultural geographical and urban/rural settings: Bangladesh Brazil Ethiopia Japan Peru Namibia Samoa Serbia and Montenegro Thailand and the United Republic of Tanzania. The Study was designed to: estimate the prevalence of physical sexual and emotional violence against women with particular emphasis on violence by intimate partners; assess the association of partner violence with a range of health outcomes; identify factors that may either protect or put women at risk of partner violence; document the strategies and services that women use to cope with violence by an intimate partner. (excerpt)

2,085 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Using a new series of consistent, consumption-based poverty measures spanning forty years, the author assess how much India's poor shared in the country's economic growth, taking into account its urban-rural and output composition. Rural consumption growth reduced poverty in both rural and urban areas. Urban growth brought some benefits to the urban poor, but had no impact on rural poverty. And rural-to-urban population shifts had no significant impact on poverty. Decomposing growth by output sectors, we found that output growth in the primary and tertiary sectors reduced poverty in both urban and rural areas but that secondary sector growth did not reduce poverty in either.

1,915 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years