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Ruthenium

About: Ruthenium is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 40184 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 996514 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Ru & element 44.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: cis-X 2 Bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II) complexes (X=Cl - , Br, I - , CN - , and SCN - ) were prepared and characterized with respct to their absorption, luminescence, and redox behavior. They act as efficient charge-transfer sensitizers for nanocrystalline TiO 2 films (thickness 8-12 μm) of very high internal surface area (roughness factor ca. 1000), prepared by sintering of 15-30-nm colloidal titania particles on a conducting glass support. The performance of cis-di(thiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylate)ruthenium(II) (1) was found to be outstanding and is unmatched by any other known sensitizer

5,662 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
10 Jul 2013-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: The conversion of these bench stable, benign catalysts to redox-active species upon irradiation with simple household lightbulbs represents a remarkably chemoselective trigger to induce unique and valuable catalytic processes.
Abstract: A fundamental aim in the field of catalysis is the development of new modes of small molecule activation. One approach toward the catalytic activation of organic molecules that has received much attention recently is visible light photoredox catalysis. In a general sense, this approach relies on the ability of metal complexes and organic dyes to engage in single-electron-transfer (SET) processes with organic substrates upon photoexcitation with visible light. Many of the most commonly employed visible light photocatalysts are polypyridyl complexes of ruthenium and iridium, and are typified by the complex tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II), or Ru(bpy)32+ (Figure 1). These complexes absorb light in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum to give stable, long-lived photoexcited states.1,2 The lifetime of the excited species is sufficiently long (1100 ns for Ru(bpy)32+) that it may engage in bimolecular electron-transfer reactions in competition with deactivation pathways.3 Although these species are poor single-electron oxidants and reductants in the ground state, excitation of an electron affords excited states that are very potent single-electron-transfer reagents. Importantly, the conversion of these bench stable, benign catalysts to redox-active species upon irradiation with simple household lightbulbs represents a remarkably chemoselective trigger to induce unique and valuable catalytic processes. Open in a separate window Figure 1 Ruthenium polypyridyl complexes: versatile visible light photocatalysts.

4,920 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
13 Aug 1999-Organic Letters
TL;DR: These air- and water-tolerant complexes were shown to exhibit an increased ring-closing metathesis activity at elevated temperature when compared to that of the parent complex 2 and the previously developed complex 3.
Abstract: A new family of 1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-ylidene-substituted ruthenium-based complexes 9a−c has been prepared starting from RuCl2(CHPh)(PCy3)2 2. These air- and water-tolerant complexes were shown to exhibit an increased ring-closing metathesis activity at elevated temperature when compared to that of the parent complex 2 and the previously developed complex 3. In many instances the activity of these complexes also rivaled or exceeded that of the alkoxy−imido molybdenum complex 1. Catalyst loadings of as low as 0.05 mol % could be used.

3,023 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The computed alignments of the molecular orbitals of the different complexes with the band edges of a model TiO(2) nanoparticle provide additional insights into the electronic factors governing the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell devices.
Abstract: We report a combined experimental and computational study of several ruthenium(II) sensitizers originated from the [Ru(dcbpyH2)2(NCS)2], N3, and [Ru(dcbpyH2)(tdbpy)(NCS)2], N621, (dcbpyH2 = 4,4‘-dicarboxy-2,2‘-bipyridine, tdbpy = 4,4‘-tridecyl-2,2‘-bipyridine) complexes. A purification procedure was developed to obtain pure N-bonded isomers of both types of sensitizers. The photovoltaic data of the purified N3 and N621 sensitizers adsorbed on TiO2 films in their monoprotonated and diprotonated state, exhibited remarkable power conversion efficiency at 1 sun, 11.18 and 9.57%, respectively. An extensive Density Functional Theory (DFT)−Time Dependent DFT study of these sensitizers in solution was performed, investigating the effect of protonation of the terminal carboxylic groups and of the counterions on the electronic structure and optical properties of the dyes. The calculated absorption spectra are in good agreement with the experiment, thus allowing a detailed assignment of the UV−vis spectral features ...

2,572 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The black dye, when anchored to nanocrystalline TiO(2) films achieves very efficient sensitization over the whole visible range extending into the near-IR region up to 920 nm, yielding over 80% incident photon-to-current efficiencies (IPCE).
Abstract: A new series of panchromatic ruthenium(II) sensitizers derived from carboxylated terpyridyl complexes of tris-thiocyanato Ru(II) have been developed. Black dye containing different degrees of protonation {(C2H5)3NH}[Ru(H3tcterpy)(NCS)3] 1, {(C4H9)4N}2[Ru(H2tcterpy)(NCS)3] 2, {(C4H9)4N}3[Ru(Htcterpy)(NCS)3] 3, and {(C4H9)4N}4[Ru(tcterpy)(NCS)3] 4 (tcterpy = 4,4‘,4‘ ‘-tricarboxy-2,2‘:6‘,2‘ ‘-terpyridine) have been synthesized and fully characterized by UV−vis, emission, IR, Raman, NMR, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray diffraction studies. The crystal structure of complex 2 confirms the presence of a RuIIN6 central core derived from the terpyridine ligand and three N-bonded thiocyanates. Intermolecular H-bonding between carboxylates on neighboring terpyridines gives rise to 2-D H-bonded arrays. The absorption and emission maxima of the black dye show a bathochromic shift with decreasing pH and exhibit pH-dependent excited-state lifetimes. The red-shift of the emission maxima is due to better π-acceptor properti...

2,400 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20227
2021845
20201,035
20191,134
20181,176
20171,214

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Pierre H. Dixneuf

250 papers, 10.6K citations

Chi-Ming Che

227 papers, 6.6K citations

Christian Bruneau

205 papers, 8.6K citations

Robert H. Grubbs

182 papers, 25K citations

Lutz Ackermann

175 papers, 11.9K citations