Topic

# Saddle point

About: Saddle point is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7629 publications have been published within this topic receiving 190815 citations. The topic is also known as: minimax point.

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TL;DR: In this article, a modification of the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths is presented, where one of the images is made to climb up along the elastic band to converge rigorously on the highest saddle point.

Abstract: A modification of the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths is presented. One of the images is made to climb up along the elastic band to converge rigorously on the highest saddle point. Also, variable spring constants are used to increase the density of images near the top of the energy barrier to get an improved estimate of the reaction coordinate near the saddle point. Applications to CH4 dissociative adsorption on Ir~111! and H2 on Si~100! using plane wave based density functional theory are presented. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. @S0021-9606~00!71246-3#

14,071 citations

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TL;DR: An improved way of estimating the local tangent in the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths is presented, and examples given where a complementary method, the dimer method, is used to efficiently converge to the saddle point.

Abstract: An improved way of estimating the local tangent in the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths is presented. In systems where the force along the minimum energy path is large compared to the restoring force perpendicular to the path and when many images of the system are included in the elastic band, kinks can develop and prevent the band from converging to the minimum energy path. We show how the kinks arise and present an improved way of estimating the local tangent which solves the problem. The task of finding an accurate energy and configuration for the saddle point is also discussed and examples given where a complementary method, the dimer method, is used to efficiently converge to the saddle point. Both methods only require the first derivative of the energy and can, therefore, easily be applied in plane wave based density-functional theory calculations. Examples are given from studies of the exchange diffusion mechanism in a Si crystal, Al addimer formation on the Al(100) surfa...

6,825 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a method for finding saddle points without knowledge of the final state of the transition is described, which only makes use of first derivatives of the potential energy and is therefore applicable in situations where second derivatives are too costly or too tedious to evaluate, for example, in plane wave based density functional theory calculations.

Abstract: The problem of determining which activated (and slow) transitions can occur from a given initial state at a finite temperature is addressed. In the harmonic approximation to transition state theory this problem reduces to finding the set of low lying saddle points at the boundary of the potential energy basin associated with the initial state, as well as the relevant vibrational frequencies. Also, when full transition state theory calculations are carried out, it can be useful to know the location of the saddle points on the potential energy surface. A method for finding saddle points without knowledge of the final state of the transition is described. The method only makes use of first derivatives of the potential energy and is, therefore, applicable in situations where second derivatives are too costly or too tedious to evaluate, for example, in plane wave based density functional theory calculations. It is also designed to scale efficiently with the dimensionality of the system and can be applied to very large systems when empirical or semiempirical methods are used to obtain the atomic forces. The method can be started from the potential minimum representing the initial state, or from an initial guess closer to the saddle point. An application to Al adatom diffusion on an Al(100) surface described by an embedded atom method potential is presented. A large number of saddle points were found for adatom diffusion and dimer/vacancy formation. A surprisingly low energy four atom exchange process was found as well as processes indicative of local hex reconstruction of the surface layer.

2,446 citations

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01 Jan 1974

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a fitting for hose end fittings that is suitable for use in conjunction with a cross-linked polyethylene hose or pipe, where a body incorporating a nipple adapted for insertion in a pipe end and a clamping ring normally retained on the body and adapted for clamping action about the outer surface of said pipe end is described.

Abstract: The present invention is concerned with hose end fittings and has particular reference to fitting suitable for use in conjunction with a cross-linked polyethylene hose or pipe. The characteristic feature of the fitting of the present invention is a body incorporating a nipple adapted for insertion in a pipe end and a clamping ring normally retained on the body and adapted for clamping action about said outer surface of said pipe end, the nipple and ring being contoured on the inner surface to effect an improved clamping action. In a preferred embodiment the nipple may incorporate an annular groove incorporating an O-ring to assist sealing between the nipple and the internal surface of the tube or pipe.

2,298 citations

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TL;DR: A large selection of solution methods for linear systems in saddle point form are presented, with an emphasis on iterative methods for large and sparse problems.

Abstract: Large linear systems of saddle point type arise in a wide variety of applications throughout computational science and engineering. Due to their indefiniteness and often poor spectral properties, such linear systems represent a significant challenge for solver developers. In recent years there has been a surge of interest in saddle point problems, and numerous solution techniques have been proposed for this type of system. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss a large selection of solution methods for linear systems in saddle point form, with an emphasis on iterative methods for large and sparse problems.

2,253 citations