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Saline water

About: Saline water is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4795 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 72818 citation(s). The topic is also known as: salt water & saltwater.

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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1986
Abstract: Many plant, soil, water, and environmental factors interact to influence the salt tolerance of a plant. This chapter presents the salt-tolerance data as well as tolerance limits for boron, chloride, and sodium. Plant tolerance to salinity is usually appraised in one of three ways: the ability of a plant to survive on saline soils, the absolute plant growth or yield, and the relative growth or yield on saline soil compared with that on nonsaline soil. Temperature, relative humidity, and air pollution are important climatic factors that influence plant response to salinity. The salt tolerance of woody crops is complicated because they are also influenced by specific salt constituents. Crops irrigated by sprinkler systems are subject to additional salt damage when the foliage is directly wetted by saline water. Boron is an essential plant element but it can become toxic to some plants when soil-water concentrations exceed only slightly that required for optimum plant growth.

1,058 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effects of salinity on tomato plant growth and fruit production, the cultural techniques which can be applied to alleviate the deleterious effects of salt, and the possibilities of breeding salt-tolerant tomatoes are reviewed.
Abstract: The effects of salinity on tomato plant growth and fruit production, the cultural techniques which can be applied to alleviate the deleterious effects of salt, and the possibilities of breeding salt-tolerant tomatoes are reviewed. Salinity reduces tomato seed germination and lengthens the time needed for germination to such an extent that the establishment of a competitive crop by direct seeding would be difficult in soils where the electrical conductivity (EC) of a saturated extract was equal to or above 8 dS m−1. Priming seeds primed with 1 M NaCl for 36 h seems advisable to establish a crop by direct sowing in saline soils, and seedling conditioning, either by exposure to moderately saline water exposure or by withholding watering until seedlings wilt for 20–24 h, can be recommended for crops that are to be established by transplanting. Yields are reduced when plants are grown with a nutrient solution of 2.5 dS m−1 or higher and above 3.0 dS m−1 an increase of 1 dS m−1 results in a yield reduction of about 9–10%. At low ECs, yield reduction is caused mainly by reduction in the average fruit weight, whilst the declining number of fruits explains the main portion of yield reduction at high ECs. Since the smaller the fruit, the less important the reduction in fruit weight caused by salt, small size tomatoes are recommended to be grown at moderate salinity. Short cycle crops, in which only 4–6 trusses are harvested, are also recommended – especially since upper inflorescences are particularly sensitive to salt. Root growth, which slows when salinity reaches 4–6 dS m−1, appears to be less affected by salt than shoot growth. Salinity raises Na+ concentration in roots and leaves of tomato plants. A higher Na+ concentration in the leaves lowers the osmotic potential and promotes water uptake, but it is the ability to regulate Na+ in older leaves while maintaining a low Na+ concentration in young leaves which seems to be related to salinity tolerance. Ca2+ and K+ concentrations in roots of salinised tomato plants change little under salinity whilst they are greatly reduced in leaves; those plants taking up more Ca2+ and K+ from the salinised medium will have lower Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ ratios and an equilibrium of nutrients more similar to the non-salinised plants. Increasing Ca2+ and K+ concentrations in the nutrient solution is, consequently, advisable. Root NO−3 concentration is maintained for longer periods after salinisation or under higher salinity levels than leaf NO−3 concentration. Salinity enhances tomato fruit taste by increasing both sugars and acids, fruit shelf life and firmness are unchanged or slightly lowered, but the incidence of blossom end rot is much higher. Breeding of tomato cultivars tolerant to moderate salinity will only occur after pyramiding in a single genotype several characteristics such as greater root volume, higher efficiency in water absorption and dry matter formation per unit of water absorbed, higher selectivity in absorption of nutrients, and higher capability to accumulate toxic ions in vacuoles and old leaves.

701 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The dielectric constant of saline water may be represented by an equation of the Debye form. Equations for the parameters in the Debye expression are given as functions of the water temperature and salinity.

663 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Growing seedlings in seedbeds with saline media could be of interest to better tolerate further salty conditions in the field or greenhouse and in relation to salt tolerance.
Abstract: Growth and water uptake both decreases when tomato plants are irrigated with saline water. To determine the relative contribution of physiological traits to these decreases plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, leaf water (Psi(w)) and osmotic (Psi(Pi)) potentials, gas exchange parameters, stomatal density, leaf chlorophyll and Na content were investigated in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars, Daniela and Moneymaker. Plants were grown in greenhouse, in sand culture, and irrigated with a complete nutrient solution supplied with 0 (control), 35 and 70 mM NaCl over a period of 2 months. Salinity reduced plant dry weight, height and number of leaves even at 35 mM NaCl. Leaf Psi(w) and Psi(Pi) decreased with salinity but leaf turgor pressures were significantly higher in salinised than in control plants which suggests that bulk tissue turgor did not limit growth under the saline conditions tested. Increasing salinity in the irrigation solution led to both morphological changes [(reduction of plant leaf area and stomatal density) and physiological changes [reduction of stomatal conductance, transpiration, and net CO(2) assimilation (A(CO(2)))] Plant water uptake, measured as the difference between volume of nutrient solution supplied and drainage collected, was closely related to transpiration, stomatal conductance, and stomatal density. Chlorophyll content per unit of leaf area increased with salinity. Reduction of net A(CO(2)) with salinity was explained in higher degree by stomatal conductance and stomatal density than by Na accumulation in the leaves. Although plant water uptake was similar for the two cultivars, Daniela transported, per unit of water uptake, more Na to the leaves than did Moneymaker. However, Daniela reduced leaf area less than did Moneymaker. Water use efficiency, calculated either as the ratio between total plant dry matter and total plant water uptake, or as the ratio between net A(CO(2)) and transpiration, did not change under our saline growth conditions. The contribution of the observed salt-responses to reduction in shoot water loss, plant water uptake and salt loading, while keeping water use efficiency, is discussed in relation to salt tolerance. Because some of these salt-responses take a long time to develop, growing seedlings in seedbeds with saline media could be of interest to better tolerate further salty conditions in the field or greenhouse.

438 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Grain growth was less sensitive to salinity at milking stage, suggesting that the plant is able to escape stress when the duration of salinity is short, as well as suggesting that salinity affects photosynthetic pigments, soluble carbohydrates, and protein differently.
Abstract: We evaluated the effect of salinity on rice at the reproductive phase. From flag leaf stage to dough stage, potted rice plants were irrigated twice a week with saline water (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) at a volume of 1.5 times that of the soil. Photosynthesis and leaf biochemical constituents were measured at flowering (15 days after treatment establishment, DATE) and milking stage (25 DATE). Samples for grain dry matter and biochemical analysis were collected at milking (25 DATE) and dough (37 DATE) stages. Reduction in photosynthesis in the salinized plants depended not only on a reduction of available CO2 by stomatal closure, but also on the cumulative effects of leaf water and osmotic potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative leaf water content, and biochemical constituents such as photosynthetic pigments, soluble carbohydrates, and protein. The cumulative effects resulted in low concentrations of assimilates in the leaves. These low concentrations and poor translocation of assimilates from the source reduced grain dry matter. Grain growth was less sensitive to salinity at milking stage. This suggests that the plant is able to escape stress when the duration of salinity is short.

325 citations

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