Topic

# Salt-and-pepper noise

About: Salt-and-pepper noise is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4572 publications have been published within this topic receiving 75078 citations. The topic is also known as: Salt & pepper noise & salt-and-pepper noise.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a transformation known as the maximum noise fraction (MNF) transformation is presented, which always produces new components ordered by image quality, and it can be shown that this transformation is equivalent to principal components transformations when the noise variance is the same in all bands and that it reduces to a multiple linear regression when noise is in one band only.

Abstract: A transformation known as the maximum noise fraction (MNF) transformation, which always produces new components ordered by image quality, is presented. It can be shown that this transformation is equivalent to principal components transformations when the noise variance is the same in all bands and that it reduces to a multiple linear regression when noise is in one band only. Noise can be effectively removed from multispectral data by transforming to the MNF space, smoothing or rejecting the most noisy components, and then retransforming to the original space. In this way, more intense smoothing can be applied to the MNF components with high noise and low signal content than could be applied to each band of the original data. The MNF transformation requires knowledge of both the signal and noise covariance matrices. Except when the noise is in one band only, the noise covariance matrix needs to be estimated. One procedure for doing this is discussed and examples of cleaned images are presented. >

2,407 citations

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TL;DR: The image intensity in magnetic resonance magnitude images in the presence of noise is shown to be governed by a Rician distribution and low signal intensities (SNR < 2) are therefore biased due to the noise.

Abstract: The image intensity in magnetic resonance magnitude images in the presence of noise is shown to be governed by a Rician distribution. Low signal intensities (SNR < 2) are therefore biased due to the noise. It is shown how the underlying noise can be estimated from the images and a simple correction scheme is provided to reduce the bias. The noise characteristics in phase images are also studied and shown to be very different from those of the magnitude images. Common to both, however, is that the noise distributions are nearly Gaussian for SNR larger than two.

2,253 citations

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TL;DR: A novel algorithm for fuzzy segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and estimation of intensity inhomogeneities using fuzzy logic and the neighborhood effect acts as a regularizer and biases the solution toward piecewise-homogeneous labelings.

Abstract: We present a novel algorithm for fuzzy segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and estimation of intensity inhomogeneities using fuzzy logic. MRI intensity inhomogeneities can be attributed to imperfections in the radio-frequency coils or to problems associated with the acquisition sequences. The result is a slowly varying shading artifact over the image that can produce errors with conventional intensity-based classification. Our algorithm is formulated by modifying the objective function of the standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm to compensate for such inhomogeneities and to allow the labeling of a pixel (voxel) to be influenced by the labels in its immediate neighborhood. The neighborhood effect acts as a regularizer and biases the solution toward piecewise-homogeneous labelings. Such a regularization is useful in segmenting scans corrupted by salt and pepper noise. Experimental results on both synthetic images and MR data are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

1,647 citations

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TL;DR: The adaptive noise smoothing filter is a systematic derivation of Lee's algorithm with some extensions that allow different estimators for the local image variance and its easy extension to deal with various types of signal-dependent noise.

Abstract: In this paper, we consider the restoration of images with signal-dependent noise. The filter is noise smoothing and adapts to local changes in image statistics based on a nonstationary mean, nonstationary variance (NMNV) image model. For images degraded by a class of uncorrelated, signal-dependent noise without blur, the adaptive noise smoothing filter becomes a point processor and is similar to Lee's local statistics algorithm [16]. The filter is able to adapt itself to the nonstationary local image statistics in the presence of different types of signal-dependent noise. For multiplicative noise, the adaptive noise smoothing filter is a systematic derivation of Lee's algorithm with some extensions that allow different estimators for the local image variance. The advantage of the derivation is its easy extension to deal with various types of signal-dependent noise. Film-grain and Poisson signal-dependent restoration problems are also considered as examples. All the nonstationary image statistical parameters needed for the filter can be estimated from the noisy image and no a priori information about the original image is required.

1,357 citations

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BBN Technologies

^{1}TL;DR: This paper describes a method for enhancing speech corrupted by broadband noise based on the spectral noise subtraction method, which can automatically adapt to a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios, as long as a reasonable estimate of the noise spectrum can be obtained.

Abstract: This paper describes a method for enhancing speech corrupted by broadband noise. The method is based on the spectral noise subtraction method. The original method entails subtracting an estimate of the noise power spectrum from the speech power spectrum, setting negative differences to zero, recombining the new power spectrum with the original phase, and then reconstructing the time waveform. While this method reduces the broadband noise, it also usually introduces an annoying "musical noise". We have devised a method that eliminates this "musical noise" while further reducing the background noise. The method consists in subtracting an overestimate of the noise power spectrum, and preventing the resultant spectral components from going below a preset minimum level (spectral floor). The method can automatically adapt to a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios, as long as a reasonable estimate of the noise spectrum can be obtained. Extensive listening tests were performed to determine the quality and intelligibility of speech enhanced by our method. Listeners unanimously preferred the quality of the processed speech. Also, for an input signal-to-noise ratio of 5 dB, there was no loss of intelligibility associated with the enhancement technique.

1,296 citations