About: Sativum is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4100 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 55332 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Weed.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Essential oil of cilantro was particularly effective against Listeria monocytogenes, likely due to the presence of long chain (C6-C10) alcohols and aldehydes.
Abstract: Essential oils from dill (Anethum graveolens L.), coriander (seeds of Coriandrum sativum L.), cilantro (leaves of immature C. sativum L.) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dives) were separated into heterogeneous mixtures of components by fractional distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentrations against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were determined for the crude oils and their fractions. Essential oil of cilantro was particularly effective against Listeria monocytogenes, likely due to the presence of long chain (C6–C10) alcohols and aldehydes. The strength and spectrum of inhibition for the fractions often exceeded those determined in the crude oils. Mixing of fractions resulted in additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual test microorganisms.
TL;DR: The XAS speciation analysis indicates that CrO42− is converted in the root to Cr3+ by all plants tested, and a hypothesis for the differential accumulation and identical translocation patterns of the two Cr ions is proposed.
Abstract: Trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is essential for animal and human health, whereas hexavalent Cr (CrO42−) is a potent carcinogen and extremely toxic to animals and humans. Thus, the accumulated Cr in food plants may represent potential health hazards to animals and humans if the element is accumulated in the hexavalent form or in high concentrations. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which various vegetable crops absorb and accumulate Cr3+ and CrO42− into roots and shoots and to ascertain the different chemical forms of Cr in these tissues. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed using a recirculating-nutrient culture technique that allowed all plants to be equally supplied with Cr at all times. In the first experiment, 1 mg L−1 Cr was supplied to 11 vegetable plant species as Cr3+ or CrO42−, and the accumulation of Cr in roots and shoots was compared. The crops tested included cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.), cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.), celery (Apium graveolens L. var. dulce (Mill.) Pers.), chive (Allium schoenoprasum L.), collard (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.), garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), onion (Allium cepa L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassaDuch.). In the second experiment, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis on Cr in plant tissues was performed in roots and shoots of various vegetable plants treated with CrO42− at either 2 mg Cr L−1 for 7 d or 10 mg Cr L−1 for 2, 4 or 7 d. The crops used in this experiment included beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. crassa (Alef.) J. Helm), broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica Plenck), cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. gp. Cantalupensis), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), lettuce, radish (Raphanus sativus L.), spinach, tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) Karsten), and turnip (Brassica rapa L. var. rapifera Bailey). The XAS speciation analysis indicates that CrO42− is converted in the root to Cr3+ by all plants tested. Translocation of both Cr forms from roots to shoots was extremely limited and accumulation of Cr by roots was 100-fold higher than that by shoots, regardless of the Cr species supplied. Highest Cr concentrations were detected in members of the Brassicaceae family such as cauliflower, kale, and cabbage. Based on our observations and previous findings by other researchers, a hypothesis for the differential accumulation and identical translocation patterns of the two Cr ions is proposed.
TL;DR: Preliminary analysis of the genetic behaviour of the myc− mutants in diallel crosses has shown that at least three genes are involved in VA mycorrhiza infection.
Abstract: Genetic resistance to vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhiza formation has been obtained in spontaneous or chemically induced mutants of two mycorrhiza-forming species (Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L.). The eight mutants, termed myc−, are characterized by aborted infections limited to one or two host cells. Expression of the myc− character is associated with that of the nod− character in both legumes, and is likewise under recessive genetic control. Preliminary analysis of the genetic behaviour of the myc− mutants in diallel crosses has shown that at least three genes are involved in VA mycorrhiza infection.
TL;DR: The significant antibacterial activity of essential oils to the bacterial pathogens of mushrooms appears promising and may be useful natural bactericides for the control of bacterial diseases of plants and for seed treatment, in particular in organic agriculture.
Abstract: Essential oils were extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. vulgare (Miller) and assayed in vitro for antibacterial activity to Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium, bacteria routinely used for comparison in the antimicrobial assays, and 27 phytopathogenic bacterial species and two mycopathogenic ones responsible for cultivated mushroom diseases. A significant antibacterial activity, as determined with the agar diffusion method, was shown by C. sativum essential oil whereas a much reduced effect was observed for F. vulgare var. vulgare oil. C. sativum and F. vulgare var. vulgare essential oils may be useful natural bactericides for the control of bacterial diseases of plants and for seed treatment, in particular, in organic agriculture. The significant antibacterial activity of essential oils to the bacterial pathogens of mushrooms appears promising.
TL;DR: It was suggested that P. vulgaris could be used in rhizofiltration--the use of plant roots to absorb pollutants from water contaminated with lead, because of the highest rate of Pb ions uptake from the medium and after 96 h of incubation lead content in the medium decreased by half.
Abstract: This study focuses on lead accumulation in roots, stems and leaves of three plant species of the Fabacea family: Vicia faba, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris grown hydroponically in a medium supplemented with 1 mM concentration of lead. The largest amount of lead, up to 75 mg Pb/g dry weight, was accumulated in roots of P. vulgaris. The highest rate of Pb ions uptake from the medium took place during the first 10 h of incubation with lead and after 96 h of incubation lead content in the medium decreased by half. Thus, it was suggested that P. vulgaris could be used in rhizofiltration--the use of plant roots to absorb pollutants from water contaminated with lead. At the same time we studied the influence of lead on acid soluble thiol, glutathione, homoglutathione contents and the synthesis of phyto- and homophytochelatins in roots of V. faba, P. sativum and P. vulgaris grown hydroponically. Activation of the detoxicative-phytochelatin system was observed in the cytosol of root cells of the tested plants. This system was composed of phytochelatins (PCs) in roots of V. faba, homophytochelatins (hPCs) in P. vulgaris roots and both PCs and hPCs in P. sativum roots. The total content of PCs and hPCs in roots of P. sativum was very high and reached around 4800 (expressed in nmol SH x g(-1)FW) and induction of their synthesis occurred after only 2 h of treatment with 1 mM Pb.
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