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Scale (ratio)

About: Scale (ratio) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 70095 publications have been published within this topic receiving 810120 citations. The topic is also known as: scale ratio.

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TL;DR: The CES-D scale as discussed by the authors is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population, which has been used in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings.
Abstract: The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.

44,791 citations

Reference EntryDOI


07 Feb 2014

6,430 citations

Journal ArticleDOI


TL;DR: The Personal In-volvement Inventory was developed over four data sets of 268 undergraduate psychology students, two data set of 49 MBA students, and two data sets with 57 clerical and administrative staff members as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: SUMMARY The purpose of the study was to develop a scale tomeasure the construct of involvement. Hence, a se-mantic differential scale was developed to capture theconcept of involvement for products. This Personal In-volvement Inventory was developed over four data setsof 268 undergraduate psychology students; two data setswith 49 MBA students; and two data sets with 57 clericaland administrative staflf members. The scale was dem-onstrated to have content validity by expert judges attwo phases of the scale development: first, for the se-lection of items, and second, through classification ofopen-ended responses from subjects. The reliability orstability of the scale over time was checked over twosubject populations for an average test-retest correlationof 0.90. The criterion-related validity of the scale waschecked by demonstrating agreement with the order ofvarious products as found in previous studies. The con-struct validity—the test ofthe scale to theoretical prop-ositions—was then carried out. The scale was admin-istered to clerical and administrative staff and coveredthree different product categories and several statementsof behavior proposed to be representative of involve-ment. Over all three product categories there was a pos-itive relationship between the scale scores and the sub-jects' responses to the statements of theoretical prop-ositions pertaining to involvement.

5,108 citations


01 Jan 2014

4,527 citations


01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: This analysis of metabolic networks of 43 organisms representing all three domains of life shows that, despite significant variation in their individual constituents and pathways, these metabolic networks have the same topological scaling properties and show striking similarities to the inherent organization of complex non-biological systems.

4,228 citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years