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Scatternet

About: Scatternet is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 620 publications have been published within this topic receiving 9118 citations.


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Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Apr 2001
TL;DR: This paper introduces the Bluetooth topology construction protocol (BTCP), an asynchronous distributed protocol for constructing scatternets which starts with nodes that have no knowledge of their surroundings and terminates with the formation of a connected network satisfying all connectivity constraints posed by the Bluetooth technology.
Abstract: Wireless ad hoc networks have been a growing area of research. While there has been considerable research on the topic of routing in such networks, the topic of topology creation has not received due attention. This is because almost all ad hoc networks to date have been built on top of a single channel, broadcast based wireless media, such as 802.11 or IR LANs. For such networks the distance relationship between the nodes implicitly (and uniquely) determines the topology of the ad hoc network. Bluetooth is a promising new wireless technology, which enables portable devices to form short-range wireless ad hoc networks and is based on a frequency hopping physical layer. This fact implies that hosts are not able to communicate unless they have previously discovered each other by synchronizing their frequency hopping patterns. Thus, even if all nodes are within direct communication range of each other, only those nodes which are synchronized with the transmitter can hear the transmission. To support any-to-any communication, nodes must be synchronized so that the pairs of nodes (which can communicate with each other) together form a connected graph. Using Bluetooth as an example, this paper first provides deeper insights into the issue to link establishment in frequency hopping wireless systems. It then introduces the Bluetooth topology construction protocol (BTCP), an asynchronous distributed protocol for constructing scatternets which starts with nodes that have no knowledge of their surroundings and terminates with the formation of a connected network satisfying all connectivity constraints posed by the Bluetooth technology. To the best of our knowledge, the work presented in this paper is the first attempt at building Bluetooth scatternets using distributed logic and is quite "practical" in the sense that it can be implemented using the communication primitives offered by the Bluetooth 1.0 specifications.

392 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
11 Jun 2001
TL;DR: In this article, the authors propose two protocols for forming connected scatternets, in which the number of roles each node can assume are limited to two or three (depending on the protocol), thus imposing low slave management overhead.
Abstract: Bluetooth is an open specification for short-range wireless communication and networking, mainly intended to be a cable replacement between portable and/or fixed electronic devices. The specification also defines techniques for interconnecting large number of nodes in scatternets, thus enabling the establishment of a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). While several solutions and commercial products have been introduced for one-hop Bluetooth communication, the problem of scatternet formation has not yet been dealt with. This problem concerns the assignment of the roles of master and slave to each node so that the resulting MANET is connected. We introduce two novel protocols for forming connected scatternets. In both cases, the resulting topology is termed a bluetree. In our bluetrees the number of roles each node can assume are limited to two or three (depending on the protocol), thus imposing low slave management overhead. The effectiveness of both protocols in forming MANETs is demonstrated through extensive simulations.

307 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An overall architecture for handling scheduling in a scatternet is presented, and a family of feasible IPS algorithms, referred to as rendezvous point algorithms, are introduced and discussed.
Abstract: We find ourselves today often carrying numerous portable electronic devices, such as notebook computers, mobile phones, PDAs, digital cameras, and mp3/MD/DVD players, used to help and entertain us in our professional as well as private lives. For the most part, these devices are used separately, and their applications do not interact. Imagine, however, if they could interact directly and thus create a network where information may flow seamlessly between the devices-such a network of personal devices is often referred to as a personal area network, or PAN. Moreover, access to the Internet via a (public) wireless LAN access point and/or via a 3G UMTS mobile phone would enable the PAN to be constantly online. The strongest candidate to provide the cheap short-range radio links necessary to enable such networks is the Bluetooth wireless technology. Seen from a networking perspective, a PAN will be expected to have participants, both of its "own" devices and "guest" devices from other PANs, continuously moving in and out of its coverage. To cope with this volatile nature of the network, the concept of ad hoc networking may be applied to create robust and flexible connectivity. A major technical step is taken when the Bluetooth piconet network architecture, a strict star topology, is extended into a scatternet architecture, where piconets are interconnected. A consequence of creating scatternet-based PANs is that some nodes will form gateways between piconets, and these gateways must be capable of time sharing their presence In each piconet of which they are members. While the Bluetooth standard defines the gateway nodes, the actual mechanisms and algorithms that accomplish the interpiconet scheduling (IPS) are left rather open. Given the lack of research literature in the subject, an overall architecture for handling scheduling in a scatternet is presented. A family of feasible IPS algorithms, referred to as rendezvous point algorithms, is also introduced and discussed.

215 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To fully realize the Bluetooth vision, full networking of multiple Bluetooth devices is required, which leads to the investigation of Bluetooth scatternets, which must address sc atternet formation and reconfiguration, scheduling, and routing issues.
Abstract: Bluetooth is a standard for short range, low power, and low cost wireless communication that uses radio technology. Over 2100 companies around the world already support Bluetooth technology. The wireless personal area network (WPAN) technology, based on the Bluetooth specification, is now an IEEE standard under the denomination of 802.15 WPANs. This work presents an overview about the Bluetooth communication . Bluetooth wireless technology encompasses several key points that facilitate its widespread adoption: 1) it is an open specification that is publicly available and royalty free; 2) its short-range wireless capability allows peripheral devices to communicate over a single air-interface, replacing the cables that use connectors with a multitude of shapes, sizes and numbers of pins; 3) Bluetooth supports both voice and data, making it an ideal technology to enable many types of devices to communicate; and 4) Bluetooth uses an unregulated frequency band available anywhere in the world.. To fully realize the Bluetooth vision, full networking of multiple Bluetooth devices is required. This leads to the investigation of Bluetooth scatternets, which must address scatternet formation and reconfiguration, scheduling, and routing issues.

191 citations

Book
20 Nov 2001
TL;DR: Bluetooth Revealed previews Bluetooth's future, including next-generation vertical and horizontal applications, and introduces today's resources for Bluetooth development, including silicon and developer's kits as well as legacy product enablers.
Abstract: The authoritative guide to Bluetooth! From two contributors to the Bluetooth specification!For users, the new Bluetooth wireless standard will cut through the complexity of wireless communications, enabling devices to communicate seamlessly. Bluetooth Revealed offers the first insider's view of the Bluetooth standards: crucial information and insight professionals need to start implementing Bluetooth solutions -- now. Written by leaders of the Bluetooth community, it presents the entire specification in unprecedented depth: its goals, scope, structure, interrelationships, and applications. Coverage includes: Design challenges: 2.4 GHz spectrum characteristics, power consumption, global standardization, and other key issues Usage models: cordless computing, advanced headsets, file transfer/sync, dial-up networking, conferencing, hidden computing, and more The entire Bluetooth protocol stack: radio, baseband, and software layers; hardware and interfaces; and Link Manager and Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) Bluetooth profiles: generic, telephony, networking, serial, and object exchangeBluetooth Revealed previews Bluetooth's future, including next-generation vertical and horizontal applications, and introduces today's resources for Bluetooth development, including silicon and developer's kits, as well as legacy product enablers. If you're intending to build, deploy, or market Bluetooth solutions, start right here.

191 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20232
20226
20212
20204
201910
201815