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About: Schlieren is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3335 publications have been published within this topic receiving 39375 citations.

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19 Oct 2012
TL;DR: In this article, the Schlieren approach is used to estimate the sensitivity and range of the Schlieser image. But, the sensitivity of the image is not a function of the light source, but of the background.
Abstract: 1 Historical Background.- 1.1 The 17th Century.- 1.2 The 18th Century.- 1.3 The 19th Century.- 1.4 The 20th Century.- 2 Basic Concepts.- 2.1 Light Propagation Through Inhomogeneous Media.- 2.2 Definition of a Schliere.- 2.3 Distinction Between Schlieren and Shadowgraph Methods.- 2.4 Direct Shadowgraphy.- 2.5 Simple Lens-Type Schlieren System.- 2.5.1 Point Light Source.- 2.5.2 Extended Light Source.- 2.6 On the Aspect of a Schlieren Image.- 3 Toepler's Schlieren Technique.- 3.1 Lens- and Mirror-Type Systems.- 3.1.1 Lens Systems.- 3.1.2 Mirror Systems.- 3.2 Sensitivity.- 3.2.1 Definition and Geometrical Theory.- 3.2.2 Sensitivity Examples.- 3.2.3 The Limits of Sensitivity.- 3.2.4 Sensitivity Enhancement by Post-Processing.- 3.3 Measuring Range.- 3.3.1 Definition of Measuring Range.- 3.3.2 Adjustment of Measuring Range.- 3.4 Estimating the Sensitivity and Range Required.- 3.5 Resolving Power.- 3.6 Diffraction Effects.- 3.6.1 Diffraction Halos Due to Opaque Edges in the Test Area.- 3.6.2 Diffraction at the Knife-Edge.- 3.7 Magnification and Depth of Field.- 3.7.1 Image Magnification and the Focusing Lens.- 3.7.2 Depth of Field.- 4 Large-Field and Focusing Schlieren Methods.- 4.1 Large Single- and Double-Mirror Systems.- 4.1.1 Availability of Large Schlieren Mirrors.- 4.1.2 Examples of Large-Mirror Systems.- 4.1.3 Perm State's 1-Meter Coincident Schlieren System.- 4.2 Traditional Schlieren Systems with Large Light Sources.- 4.3 Lens-and-Grid Techniques.- 4.3.1 Simple Background Distortion.- 4.3.2 Background Grid Distortion.- 4.3.3 Large Colored Grid Background.- 4.3.4 The Modern Focusing/Large-Field Schlieren System.- 4.3.5 Penn State's Full-Scale Schlieren System.- 4.4 Large-Field Scanning Schlieren Systems.- 4.4.1 Scanning Schlieren Systems for Moving Objects.- 4.4.2 Schlieren Systems with Scanning Light Source and Cutoff.- 4.5 Moire-Fringe Methods.- 4.6 Holographic and Tomographic Schlieren.- 5 Specialized Schlieren Techniques.- 5.1 Special Schlieren CutoffsIll.- 5.1.1 Graded Filters.- 5.1.2 Exponential Cutoffs and Source Filters.- 5.1.3 Matched Spatial Filters at Source and Cutoff.- 5.1.4 Phase Contrast.- 5.1.5 Photochromic and Photorefractive Cutoffs.- 5.2 Color Schlieren Methods.- 5.2.1 Reasons for Introducing Color.- 5.2.2 Conversion from Monochrome to Color Schlieren.- 5.2.3 Classification of Color Schlieren Techniques.- 5.2.4 Recent Developments.- 5.3 Stereoscopic Schlieren.- 5.4 Schlieren Interferometry.- 5.4.1 The Wollaston-Prism Shearing (Differential) Interferometer.- 5.4.2 Diffraction-Based Schlieren Interferometers.- 5.5 Computer-Simulated Schlieren.- 5.6 Various Specialized Techniques.- 5.6.1 Resonant Refractivity and the Visualization of Sound.- 5.6.2 Anamorphic Schlieren Systems.- 5.6.3 Schlieren Observation of Tracers.- 5.6.4 Two-View Schlieren.- 5.6.5 Immersion Methods.- 5.6.6 Infrared Schlieren.- 6 Shadowgraph Techniques.- 6.1 Background.- 6.1.1 Historical Development.- 6.1.2 The Role of Shadowgraphy.- 6.1.3 Advantages and Limitations.- 6.2 Direct Shadowgraphy.- 6.2.1 Direct Shadowgraphy in Diverging Light.- 6.2.2 Direct Shadowgraphy in Parallel Light.- 6.3 "Focused" Shadowgraphy.- 6.3.1 Principle of Operation.- 6.3.2 History and Terminology.- 6.3.3 Advantages and Limitations.- 6.3.4 Magnification, Illuminance, and the Virtual Shadow Effect.- 6.3.5 "Focused" Shadowgraphy in Ballistic Ranges.- 6.4 Specialized Shadowgraph Techniques.- 6.4.1 Large-Scale Shadowgraphy.- 6.4.2 Microscopic, Stereoscopic, and Holographic Shadowgraphy.- 6.4.3 Computed Shadowgraphy.- 6.4.4 Conical Shadowgraphy.- 7 Practical Issues.- 7.1 Optical Components.- 7.1.1 Light Sources.- 7.1.2 Mirrors.- 7.1.3 Schlieren Cutoffs and Source Filters.- 7.1.4 Condensers and Source Slits.- 7.1.5 The Required Optical Quality.- 7.2 Equipment Fabrication, Alignment, and Operation.- 7.2.1 Schlieren System Design Using Ray Tracing Codes.- 7.2.2 Fabrication of Apparatus.- 7.2.3 Setup, Alignment, and Adjustment.- 7.2.4 Vibration and Mechanical Stability.- 7.2.5 Stray Light, Self-Luminous Events, and Secondary Images.- 7.2.6 Interference from Ambient Airflows.- 7.3 Capturing Schlieren Images and Shadowgrams.- 7.3.1 Photography and Cinematography.- 7.3.2 Videography.- 7.3.3 High-Speed imaging.- 7.3.4 Front-Lighting.- 7.4 Commercial and Portable Schlieren Instruments.- 7.4.1 Soviet Instruments.- 7.4.2 Western Instruments.- 7.4.3 Portable Schlieren Apparatus.- 8 Setting Up Your Own Simple Schlieren and Shadowgraph System.- 8.1 Designing the Schlieren System.- 8.2 Determining the Cost.- 8.3 Choosing a Setup Location.- 8.4 Aligning the Optics.- 8.5 Troubleshooting.- 8.6 Recording the Schlieren Image or Shadowgram.- 8.7 Conclusion.- 9 Applications.- 9.1 Phenomena in Solids.- 9.1.1 Glass Technology.- 9.1.2 Polymer-Film Characterization.- 9.1.3 Fracture Mechanics and Terminal Ballistics.- 9.1.4 Specular Reflection from Surfaces.- 9.2 Phenomena in Liquids.- 9.2.1 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.- 9.2.2 Liquid Surface Waves.- 9.2.3 Liquid Atomization and Sprays.- 9.2.4 Ultrasonics.- 9.2.5 Water Tunnel Testing and Terminal Ballistics.- 9.3 Phenomena in Gases.- 9.3.1 Agricultural Airflows.- 9.3.2 Aero-Optics.- 9.3.3 Architectural Acoustics.- 9.3.4 Boundary Layers.- 9.3.5 Convective Heat and Mass Transfer.- 9.3.6 Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning.- 9.3.7 Gas Leak Detection.- 9.3.8 Electrical Breakdown and Discharge.- 9.3.9 Explosions, Blasts, Shock Waves, and Shock Tubes.- 9.3.10 Ballistics.- 9.3.11 Gas Dynamics and High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing.- 9.3.12 Supersonic Jets and Jet Noise.- 9.3.13 Turbomachinery and Rotorcraft.- 9.4 Other Applications.- 9.4.1 Art and music.- 9.4.2 Biomedical Applications.- 9.4.3 Combustion.- 9.4.4 Geophysics.- 9.4.5 Industrial Applications.- 9.4.6 Materials Processing.- 9.4.7 Microscopy.- 9.4.8 Optical Processing.- 9.4.9 Optical Shop Testing.- 9.4.10 Outdoor Schlieren and Shadowgraphy.- 9.4.11 Plasma Dynamics.- 9.4.12 Television Light Valve Projection.- 9.4.13 Turbulence.- 10 Quantitative Evaluation.- 10.1 Quantitative Schlieren Evaluation by Photometry.- 10.1.1 Absolute Photometric Methods.- 10.1.2 Standard Photometric Methods.- 10.2 Grid-Cutoff Methods.- 10.2.1 Focal Grids.- 10.2.2 Defocused Grids.- 10.2.3 Defocused Filament Cutoff.- 10.3 Quantitative Image Velocimetry.- 10.3.1 Background.- 10.3.2 Multiple-Exposure Eddy and Shock Velocimetry.- 10.3.3 Schlieren Image Correlation Velocimetry.- 10.3.4 Focusing Schlieren Deflectometry.- 10.3.5 The Background-Oriented Schlieren System.- 10.4 Quantitative Shadowgraphy.- 10.4.1 Double Integration of d2n/ dy2.- 10.4.2 Turbulence Research.- 10.4.3 Shock-Wave Strength Quantitation.- 10.4.4 Grid Shadowgraphy Methods.- 11 Summary and Outlook.- 11.1 Summary.- 11.1.1 Perceptions Outside the Scientific Community.- 11.1.2 Other Lessons Learned.- 11.1.3 Further Comments on Historical Development.- 11.1.4 Further Comments on Images and Visualization.- 11.1.5 Renewed Vitality.- 11.2 Outlook: Issues for the Future.- 11.2.1 Predictions.- 11.2.2 Opportunities.- 11.2.3 Recommendations.- 11.3 Closing Remarks.- References.- Appendix A Optical Fundamentals.- A. 1 Radiometry and Photometry.- A.2 Refraction Angle 8.- A.2.1 Small Optical Angles and Paraxial Space.- A.2.2 Huygens' Principle and Refraction.- A.3 Optical Components and Devices.- A.3.1 Conjugate Optical Planes.- A.3.2 Lensf/number.- A.3.3 The Thin-Lens Approximation.- A.3.4 Viewing Screens and Ground Glass.- A.3.5 Optical Density.- A.4 Optical Aberrations.- A.5 Light and the Human Eye.- A.6 Geometric Theory of Light Refraction by a Schliere.- Appendix B The Schlieren System as a Fourier Optical Processor.- B. 1 The Basic Fourier Processor with no Schlieren Present.- B.2 The Addition of a Schlieren Test Object.- B.3 The Schlieren Cutoff.- B.4 Other Spatial Filters.- B.5 Partially-Coherent and Polychromatic Illumination.- Appendix C Parts List for a Simple Schlieren/ Shadowgraph System.- C.l Optics.- C.2 Illumination.- C.3 Miscellaneous Components.- C.4 Optical Mounts.- Appendix D Suppliers of Schlieren Systems and Components.- D.l Complete Schlieren Systems.- D.2 Schlieren Field Mirrors.- D.3 Light Sources.- D.4 Components.- D.5 Focusing Schlieren Lenses.- D.6 Miscellaneous.- Color Plates.

935 citations

01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: A review of recent developments in shadowgraph and schlieren visualization can be found in this paper, where the authors present a detailed overview of the shadowgraph technique for flow visualization.
Abstract: a review of recent developments in schlieren and schlieren visualization joseph shepherd lecture # 09: flow visualization techniques: schlieren and shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry part 01 schlieren and shadowgraph techniques osfp schlieren and shadowgraph techniques module 5: schlieren and shadowgraph lecture 26 shadowgraph and schlieren techniques schlieren techniques for the visualization of current visualization based on refractive-index affects shadowgraph and schlieren techniques towards a schlieren camera northwestern university schlieren photography principles rit scholar works introduction to shadowgraph and schlieren imaging chapter 2 laser schlieren and shadowgraph springer background oriented schlieren applied to study shock mae 123 : mechanical engineering laboratory ii -fluids recent developments in schlieren and shadowgraphy schlieren and shadowgraph techniques: visualizing optical considerationsand limitations of the schlieren method principles and techniques of schlieren imaging systems mice a simple classroom demonstration of natural convection module 5: schlieren and shadowgraph lecture 27: schlieren retroreflective shadowgraph technique for large-scale flow optical methods for visualization of ultrasound fields schlieren & shadowgraph techniques steps forward physically-based interactive schlieren flow visualization schlieren and shadowgraph techniques pdf download shadow, schlieren and color interferometry physically-based interactive flow visualization based on schlieren & shadowgraph techniques steps forward background oriented schlieren (bos) and other flow size 50,24mb doc book schlieren and shadowgraph techniques 6 shadowgraph techniques springer pradipta kumar panigrahi krishnamurthy muralidhar schlieren and shadowgraph techniques jlip application of the shadowgraph flow visualization shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry in a 2d a fluid motion estimator for schlieren image velocimetry schlieren and shadowgraph techniques springer shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry in a 2d quantitative fourier analysis of schlieren masks: the schlieren, shadowgraph and direct photography fkm.utm schlieren and shadowgraph techniques for °uid physics four decades of utilizing shadowgraph techniques to study color schlieren imaging with a two-path, double knife edge schlieren and shadowgraph techniques gerrymarshall free download schlieren & shadowgraph techniques book shadow-schlieren-book-1 rit people

906 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Novel techniques for producing qualitative visualisations of density fluctuations and for obtaining quantitative whole-field density measurements in two-dimensional density-stratified flows are outlined, which utilise image processing technology.
Abstract: This paper outlines novel techniques for producing qualitative visualisations of density fluctuations and for obtaining quantitative whole-field density measurements in two-dimensional density-stratified flows. These techniques, which utilise image processing technology, are much simpler to set up than the classical schlieren and interferometry methods, and provide useful information in situations where shadowgraph is of little or no value. Moreover, they may be set-up to analyse much larger domains than is feasible with the classical approaches, and do not require high quality optical windows in the experimental apparatus. Ultimately the greatest strength of these techniques is the ability to extract accurate, quantitative measurements of the density field. Application of these techniques is illustrated by an internal wave field produced by an oscillating cylinder. Recent theoretical advances for this classical problem make it the ideal test bed. Results are presented for both a circular and a square cylinder oscillating vertically in a linear stratification. Further aspects of the techniques are illustrated by considering thermal convection from a hand and flow over an obstacle towed through a density stratified fluid.

391 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter system was used to investigate compressible, turbulent mixing layers using pressure mesurements, Schlieren photographs, and velocity measurements.
Abstract: Compressible, turbulent mixing layers have been investigated experimentally using pressure mesurements, Schlieren photographs, and velocity measurements with a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter system. Seven mixing-layer cases were examined, with relative Mach numbers ranging from 0.40 to 1.97 which spans the region of significant compressibility effects. Both the spatial development and similarty of the mixing layers were considered.

390 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider optical methods in which the temperature dependence of the refractive index is used to make the temperature field visible, and compare shadowgraph and schlieren methods.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter considers optical methods in which the temperature dependence of the refractive index is used to make the temperature field visible. The optical methods considered are divided into two groups: the shadow and schlieren techniques, utilizing the deflection of light in the measurement media, and the interference methods based on differences in lengths of the optical paths. Compared with shadowgraph and schlieren methods, the interference methods offer more detailed information about the model that is to be investigated; these allow a greater accuracy. The laws governing the propagation of light through a medium with locally varying refractive index have also been considered. The total information on the region of optical inhomogeneity being investigated comes from the deformation of a wave front, whose shape was originally known, as it passes through the region. The chapter provides examples of boundary-layer problems in the region of natural convection and combined convection. To fully demonstrate how the results are evaluated, some selected examples have been presented.

348 citations

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