About: Semen analysis is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4909 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 143225 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 1984-Reproduction
TL;DR: The hypoosmotic swelling technique to evaluate the functional integrity of the sperm membrane appears to give high repeatability and accuracy and is closely correlated to the in-vitro fertilizing ability of spermatozoa.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to develop a relatively simple test to evaluate the functional integrity of the membranes of human spermatozoa. As in some other species, human spermatozoa 'swell' under hypo-osmotic conditions due to the influx of water and the expansion of the membranes. A mixture of equal parts of fructose and sodium citrate (150 mosmol) with calculated ionic strength of 0.15 resulted in a maximal number of clearly identifiable swollen spermatozoa. Only small variations were seen when different aliquants of the same semen samples were separately evaluated. A high correlation (r = 0.94) was obtained between expected and observed values of swollen spermatozoa when known amounts of heat-treated spermatozoa, unable to undergo swelling, were added to untreated spermatozoa. A good correlation (r = 0.90) was also observed between the % spermatozoa in a semen sample that were capable of undergoing swelling and the % of denuded hamster oocytes that were penetrated by capacitated spermatozoa from the same semen sample. By contrast, the correlations between % sperm swelling in ejaculates and % normal sperm forms, % motile spermatozoa and % spermatozoa that do not stain with eosin-Y (supravital stain) in the same ejaculates were 0.30, 0.61 and 0.52, respectively. Therefore, the hypoosmotic swelling technique to evaluate the functional integrity of the sperm membrane appears to give high repeatability and accuracy and is closely correlated to the in-vitro fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. It may be a useful addition to the standard semen analysis.
01 Jan 1988-Fertility and Sterility
TL;DR: By evaluating sperm morphology with the proposed strict criteria, its predictive value in in vitro fertilization is enhanced.
Abstract: In patients with acceptable sperm count and motility, two patterns of abnormal morphology, judged with strict criteria, were identified and described. Patients with less than 4% normal forms and less than 30% morphology index (summation of normal and slightly amorphous forms) had a fertilization rate of 7.6% of the oocytes (P pattern, poor prognosis). Patients with normal morphology between 4 and 14% had a significantly better fertilization rate of 63.9% of the oocytes (P less than 0.0001). Cases with greater than 14% normal forms fertilized within the normal range for the laboratory. By evaluating sperm morphology with the proposed strict criteria, its predictive value in in vitro fertilization is enhanced.
TL;DR: Threshold values for sperm concentration, motility, and morphology can be used to classify men as subfertile, of indeterminate fertility, or fertile and none of the measures are diagnostic of infertility.
Abstract: Background Although semen analysis is routinely used to evaluate the male partner in infertile couples, sperm measurements that discriminate between fertile and infertile men are not well defined. Methods We evaluated two semen specimens from each of the male partners in 765 infertile couples and 696 fertile couples at nine sites. The female partners in the infertile couples had normal results on fertility evaluation. The sperm concentration and motility were determined at the sites; semen smears were stained at the sites and shipped to a central laboratory for an assessment of morphologic features of sperm with the use of strict criteria. We used classification-and-regression-tree analysis to estimate threshold values for subfertility and fertility with respect to the sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. We also used an analysis of receiver-operating-characteristic curves to assess the relative value of these sperm measurements in discriminating between fertile and infertile men. Results The su...
01 Mar 1997-Biology of Reproduction
TL;DR: Since extremely poor semen samples are the indication for intracytoplasmic sperm injection, there is a high likelihood that sperm with fragmented DNA may be selected by chance and used for oocyte injection, resulting in poor fertilization and/or cleavage rates.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of DNA fragmentation in human sperm, and to correlate any detected DNA damage with semen analysis parameters and fertilization rates in in vitro fertilization (IVF). A total of 298 semen samples were collected from men in the infertility program at The Toronto Hospital. For each sample, the percentage of sperm with DNA fragmentation was determined using the method of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end-labeling (TUNEL) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA was less than 4% in the majority of samples but ranged from 5% to 40% in approximately 27% of the samples. A negative correlation was found between the percentage of DNA fragmentation and the motility, morphology, and concentration of the ejaculated sperm. In 143 IVF samples, a significant negative association was also found between the percentage of sperm with DNA fragmentation and fertilization rate (p = 0.008) and embryo cleavage rate (p = 0.01). In addition, 35 men who smoked demonstrated an increased percentage of sperm with fragmented DNA (4.7 +/- 1.2%) as compared to 78 nonsmokers (1.1 +/- 0.2%; p = 0.01). These results demonstrate a negative association between semen analysis parameters and sperm with fragmented DNA. Since extremely poor semen samples are the indication for intracytoplasmic sperm injection, there is a high likelihood that sperm with fragmented DNA may be selected by chance and used for oocyte injection, resulting in poor fertilization and/or cleavage rates.
02 Jan 2000-Journal of Andrology
TL;DR: It is concluded that a significant proportion of infertile men have elevated levels of DNA damage in their ejaculated spermatozoa.
Abstract: The literature contains conflicting evidence regarding the existence of DNA damage in spermatozoa from infertile male patients. To examine this phenomenon, we have studied ejaculated spermatozoa from normozoospermic semen donors and from a group of the unselected male partners of couples attending an infertility clinic for initial investigation. Classical semen analysis according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines was undertaken with computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). Spermatozoa were prepared by sequential washing and centrifugation and were analyzed for DNA fragmentation using three assays: 1) a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay, 2) in situ nick translation with prior chemical decondensation (ISNT-decondensed), and 3) in situ nick translation without prior chemical decondensation (ISNT-condensed). In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by spermatozoa was measured, and seminal plasma was analyzed for its total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP). When the donor and patient groups were compared, the latter had lower levels of semen quality and higher levels of DNA damage, which was particularly apparent using the comet assay. Highly significant negative correlations were observed between DNA fragmentation, detected by all three assays, and semen quality, particularly sperm concentration. In addition, multiple regression analysis indicated that other attributes of semen quality, such as sperm movement and ROS generation, were also related to DNA damage. We conclude that a significant proportion of infertile men have elevated levels of DNA damage in their ejaculated spermatozoa.
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