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Sense amplifier

About: Sense amplifier is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 19928 publications have been published within this topic receiving 293776 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work demonstrates a TaO(x)-based asymmetric passive switching device with which it was able to localize resistance switching and satisfy all aforementioned requirements, and eliminates any need for a discrete transistor or diode in solving issues of stray leakage current paths in high-density crossbar arrays.
Abstract: Numerous candidates attempting to replace Si-based flash memory have failed for a variety of reasons over the years. Oxide-based resistance memory and the related memristor have succeeded in surpassing the specifications for a number of device requirements. However, a material or device structure that satisfies high-density, switching-speed, endurance, retention and most importantly power-consumption criteria has yet to be announced. In this work we demonstrate a TaO(x)-based asymmetric passive switching device with which we were able to localize resistance switching and satisfy all aforementioned requirements. In particular, the reduction of switching current drastically reduces power consumption and results in extreme cycling endurances of over 10(12). Along with the 10 ns switching times, this allows for possible applications to the working-memory space as well. Furthermore, by combining two such devices each with an intrinsic Schottky barrier we eliminate any need for a discrete transistor or diode in solving issues of stray leakage current paths in high-density crossbar arrays.

1,900 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Jun 2009
TL;DR: This paper analyzes a PCM-based hybrid main memory system using an architecture level model of PCM and proposes simple organizational and management solutions of the hybrid memory that reduces the write traffic to PCM, boosting its lifetime from 3 years to 9.7 years.
Abstract: The memory subsystem accounts for a significant cost and power budget of a computer system. Current DRAM-based main memory systems are starting to hit the power and cost limit. An alternative memory technology that uses resistance contrast in phase-change materials is being actively investigated in the circuits community. Phase Change Memory (PCM) devices offer more density relative to DRAM, and can help increase main memory capacity of future systems while remaining within the cost and power constraints.In this paper, we analyze a PCM-based hybrid main memory system using an architecture level model of PCM.We explore the trade-offs for a main memory system consisting of PCMstorage coupled with a small DRAM buffer. Such an architecture has the latency benefits of DRAM and the capacity benefits of PCM. Our evaluations for a baseline system of 16-cores with 8GB DRAM show that, on average, PCM can reduce page faults by 5X and provide a speedup of 3X. As PCM is projected to have limited write endurance, we also propose simple organizational and management solutions of the hybrid memory that reduces the write traffic to PCM, boosting its lifetime from 3 years to 9.7 years.

1,451 citations

Patent
17 Mar 2009
TL;DR: The 3Dimensional Structure (3DS) Memory (100) as mentioned in this paper is a three-dimensional structure (3D) memory that allows physical separation of the memory circuits and the control logic circuit onto different layers such that each layer may be separately optimized.
Abstract: A Three Dimensional Structure (3DS) Memory (100) allows for physical separation of the memory circuits (103) and the control logic circuit (101) onto different layers (103) such that each layer may be separately optimized. One control logic circuit (101) suffices for several memory circuits (103), reducing cost. Fabrication of 3DS memory (100) involves thinning of the memory circuit (103) to less than 50 microns in thickness and bonding the circuit to a circuit stack while still in wafer substrate form. Fine-grain high density inter-layer vertical bus connections (105) are used. The 3DS memory (100) manufacturing method enables several performance and physical size efficiencies, and is implemented with established semiconductor processing techniques.

1,212 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Jun 2016
TL;DR: This work proposes a novel PIM architecture, called PRIME, to accelerate NN applications in ReRAM based main memory, and distinguishes itself from prior work on NN acceleration, with significant performance improvement and energy saving.
Abstract: Processing-in-memory (PIM) is a promising solution to address the "memory wall" challenges for future computer systems. Prior proposed PIM architectures put additional computation logic in or near memory. The emerging metal-oxide resistive random access memory (ReRAM) has showed its potential to be used for main memory. Moreover, with its crossbar array structure, ReRAM can perform matrix-vector multiplication efficiently, and has been widely studied to accelerate neural network (NN) applications. In this work, we propose a novel PIM architecture, called PRIME, to accelerate NN applications in ReRAM based main memory. In PRIME, a portion of ReRAM crossbar arrays can be configured as accelerators for NN applications or as normal memory for a larger memory space. We provide microarchitecture and circuit designs to enable the morphable functions with an insignificant area overhead. We also design a software/hardware interface for software developers to implement various NNs on PRIME. Benefiting from both the PIM architecture and the efficiency of using ReRAM for NN computation, PRIME distinguishes itself from prior work on NN acceleration, with significant performance improvement and energy saving. Our experimental results show that, compared with a state-of-the-art neural processing unit design, PRIME improves the performance by ~2360× and the energy consumption by ~895×, across the evaluated machine learning benchmarks.

1,197 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
25 Jan 2007-Nature
TL;DR: A 160,000-bit molecular electronic memory circuit, fabricated at a density of 1011 bits cm-2 (pitch 33 nm; memory cell size 0.0011 μm2), that is, roughly analogous to the dimensions of a DRAM circuit projected to be available by 2020.
Abstract: The primary metric for gauging progress in the various semiconductor integrated circuit technologies is the spacing, or pitch, between the most closely spaced wires within a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) circuit. Modern DRAM circuits have 140 nm pitch wires and a memory cell size of 0.0408 mum(2). Improving integrated circuit technology will require that these dimensions decrease over time. However, at present a large fraction of the patterning and materials requirements that we expect to need for the construction of new integrated circuit technologies in 2013 have 'no known solution'. Promising ingredients for advances in integrated circuit technology are nanowires, molecular electronics and defect-tolerant architectures, as demonstrated by reports of single devices and small circuits. Methods of extending these approaches to large-scale, high-density circuitry are largely undeveloped. Here we describe a 160,000-bit molecular electronic memory circuit, fabricated at a density of 10(11) bits cm(-2) (pitch 33 nm; memory cell size 0.0011 microm2), that is, roughly analogous to the dimensions of a DRAM circuit projected to be available by 2020. A monolayer of bistable, [2]rotaxane molecules served as the data storage elements. Although the circuit has large numbers of defects, those defects could be readily identified through electronic testing and isolated using software coding. The working bits were then configured to form a fully functional random access memory circuit for storing and retrieving information.

1,116 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202326
202265
202177
2020177
2019164
2018156