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Sensible heat

About: Sensible heat is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7369 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 209124 citation(s).

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1175/JCLI3990.1
Isaac M. Held1, Brian J. Soden2Institutions (2)
01 Nov 2006-Journal of Climate
Abstract: Using the climate change experiments generated for the Fourth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this study examines some aspects of the changes in the hydrological cycle that are robust across the models. These responses include the decrease in convective mass fluxes, the increase in horizontal moisture transport, the associated enhancement of the pattern of evaporation minus precipitation and its temporal variance, and the decrease in the horizontal sensible heat transport in the extratropics. A surprising finding is that a robust decrease in extratropical sensible heat transport is found only in the equilibrium climate response, as estimated in slab ocean responses to the doubling of CO2, and not in transient climate change scenarios. All of these robust responses are consequences of the increase in lower-tropospheric water vapor.

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Topics: Global warming (58%), Climate change (56%), Sensible heat (55%) ...read more

3,483 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1029/94JD00483
Abstract: A generalization of the single soil layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC) land surface hydrological model previously implemented in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation model (GCM) is described. The new model is comprised of a two-layer characterization of the soil column, and uses an aerodynamic representation of the latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The infiltration algorithm for the upper layer is essentially the same as for the single layer VIC model, while the lower layer drainage formulation is of the form previously implemented in the Max-Planck-Institut GCM. The model partitions the area of interest (e.g., grid cell) into multiple land surface cover types; for each land cover type the fraction of roots in the upper and lower zone is specified. Evapotranspiration consists of three components: canopy evaporation, evaporation from bare soils, and transpiration, which is represented using a canopy and architectural resistance formulation. Once the latent heat flux has been computed, the surface energy balance is iterated to solve for the land surface temperature at each time step. The model was tested using long-term hydrologic and climatological data for Kings Creek, Kansas to estimate and validate the hydrological parameters, and surface flux data from three First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) intensive field campaigns in the summer-fall of 1987 to validate the surface energy fluxes.

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Topics: Land cover (57%), Evapotranspiration (56%), Latent heat (56%) ...read more

2,926 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1029/95JC03205
Abstract: This paper describes the various physical processes relating near-surface atmospheric and oceanographic bulk variables ; their relationship to the surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat ; and their expression in a bulk flux algorithm. The algorithm follows the standard Monin-Obukhov similarity approach for near-surface meteorological measurements but includes separate models for the ocean's cool skin and the diurnal warm layer, which are used to derive true skin temperature from the bulk temperature measured at some depth near the surface. The basic structure is an outgrowth of the Liu-Katsaros-Businger [Liu et al., 1979] method, with modifications to include a different specification of the roughness/stress relationship, a gustiness velocity to account for the additional flux induced by boundary layer scale variability, and profile functions obeying the convective limit. Additionally, we have considered the contributions of the sensible heat carried by precipitation and the requirement that the net dry mass flux be zero (the so-called Webb correction [Webb et al., 1980]). The algorithm has been tuned to fit measurements made on the R/V Moana Wave in the three different cruise legs made during the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. These measurements yielded 1622 fifty-min averages of fluxes and bulk variables in the wind speed range from 0.5 to 10 m s -1 . The analysis gives statistically reliable values for the Charnock [1955] constant (a = 0.011) and the gustiness parameter (β = 1.25). An overall mean value for the latent heat flux, neutral bulk-transfer coefficient was 1.11 x 10 -3 , declining slightly with increasing wind speed. Mean values for the sensible and latent heat fluxes were 9.1 and 103.5 W m -2 ; mean values for the Webb and rain heat fluxes were 2.5 and 4.5 W m -2 . Accounting for all factors, the net surface heat transfer to the ocean was 17.9 ± 10 W m -2 .

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Topics: Sensible heat (63%), Latent heat (61%), Heat flux (60%) ...read more

1,778 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00123-4
Tracy E. Twine1, William P. Kustas2, John M. Norman1, David R. Cook3  +5 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Independent measurements of the major energy balance flux components are not often consistent with the principle of conservation of energy. This is referred to as a lack of closure of the surface energy balance. Most results in the literature have shown the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes measured by eddy covariance to be less than the difference between net radiation and soil heat fluxes. This under-measurement of sensible and latent heat fluxes by eddy-covariance instruments has occurred in numerous field experiments and among many different manufacturers of instruments. Four eddy-covariance systems consisting of the same models of instruments were set up side-by-side during the Southern Great Plains 1997 Hydrology Experiment and all systems under-measured fluxes by similar amounts. One of these eddy-covariance systems was collocated with three other types of eddy-covariance systems at different sites; all of these systems under-measured the sensible and latent-heat fluxes. The net radiometers and soil heat flux plates used in conjunction with the eddy-covariance systems were calibrated independently and measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux showed little scatter for various sites. The 10% absolute uncertainty in available energy measurements was considerably smaller than the systematic closure problem in the surface energy budget, which varied from 10 to 30%. When available-energy measurement errors are known and modest, eddy-covariance measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes should be adjusted for closure. Although the preferred method of energy balance closure is to maintain the Bowen‐ratio, the method for obtaining closure appears to be less important than assuring that eddy-covariance measurements are consistent with conservation of energy. Based on numerous measurements over a sorghum canopy, carbon dioxide fluxes, which are measured by eddy covariance, are underestimated by the same factor as eddy covariance evaporation measurements when energy balance closure is not achieved. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

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  • Table 1 Site identifier, site location, site description, and canopy height for SGP97 data used in this study
    Table 1 Site identifier, site location, site description, and canopy height for SGP97 data used in this study
  • Table 2 System identifier, system description, flux instruments, and EC processing methods for systems involved in this study
    Table 2 System identifier, system description, flux instruments, and EC processing methods for systems involved in this study
  • Table 3 Summary of site location, number of days at site, and instrument heights for the UW roving eddy-covariance system measurement of sensible and latent heat fluxes
    Table 3 Summary of site location, number of days at site, and instrument heights for the UW roving eddy-covariance system measurement of sensible and latent heat fluxes
  • Fig. 1. One-to-one graph of measurements of net radiation from UW-CNR1 Kipp and Zonen net radiometer collocated with other net radiometers after UW-CNR1 has been calibrated with ARM radiation instruments.
    Fig. 1. One-to-one graph of measurements of net radiation from UW-CNR1 Kipp and Zonen net radiometer collocated with other net radiometers after UW-CNR1 has been calibrated with ARM radiation instruments.
  • Table 4 Soil heat flux plate calibration in dry quartz sand expressed as percent difference between measured soil heat flux and reference flux for each plate
    Table 4 Soil heat flux plate calibration in dry quartz sand expressed as percent difference between measured soil heat flux and reference flux for each plate
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Topics: Eddy covariance (63%), Sensible heat (63%), Latent heat (61%) ...read more

1,387 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0168-1923(95)02265-Y
Abstract: A two-layer model of turbulent exchange that includes the view geometry associated with directional radiometric surface temperature is developed and evaluated by comparison of model predictions with field measurements. Required model inputs are directional brightness temperature and its angle of view, fractional vegetation cover or leaf area index, vegetation height and approximate leaf size, net radiation, and air temperature and wind speed. One advantage of the approach described in this paper is that directional brightness temperatures are considered so that the model should have wider applicability than single-layer models, and it opens the possibility of a simple solution if directional measurements are available from two substantially different view angles. Comparisons with several hundred measurements from two large-scale field experiments were performed. One study was conducted in a semiarid rangeland environment in Southern Arizona (Monsoon '90) while the other was conducted in a subhumid environment, namely the tall grass prairie in Eastern Kansas (FIFE). For the Monsoon '90 site, root-mean-square-differences (RMSD) between model predictions and measurements were between 35 and 60 W m−2 for soil, sensible and latent heat flux. With the FIFE site data RMSD values were between 50 and 60 W m−2. The larger scatter with the FIFE data was mainly caused by the model having difficulty reproducing the fluxes for the observation period with dormant vegetation. Considerations of the expected variability associated with flux measurements over complex surfaces suggests that model-derived fluxes were in acceptable agreement with the observations. However refinements in formulations of soil heat flux probably would improve agreement between model predictions and measurements.

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Topics: Sensible heat (54%), Latent heat (52%), Brightness temperature (51%) ...read more

1,288 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20227
2021230
2020246
2019307
2018252
2017283

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

William P. Kustas

49 papers, 5.5K citations

Yaoming Ma

29 papers, 649 citations

Zhongbo Su

26 papers, 806 citations

Thomas Foken

24 papers, 1.4K citations

Wilfried Brutsaert

22 papers, 1.3K citations

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