Topic

# Sequential decoding

About: Sequential decoding is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8667 publications have been published within this topic receiving 204271 citations.

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01 Jan 1963TL;DR: A simple but nonoptimum decoding scheme operating directly from the channel a posteriori probabilities is described and the probability of error using this decoder on a binary symmetric channel is shown to decrease at least exponentially with a root of the block length.

Abstract: A low-density parity-check code is a code specified by a parity-check matrix with the following properties: each column contains a small fixed number j \geq 3 of l's and each row contains a small fixed number k > j of l's. The typical minimum distance of these codes increases linearly with block length for a fixed rate and fixed j . When used with maximum likelihood decoding on a sufficiently quiet binary-input symmetric channel, the typical probability of decoding error decreases exponentially with block length for a fixed rate and fixed j . A simple but nonoptimum decoding scheme operating directly from the channel a posteriori probabilities is described. Both the equipment complexity and the data-handling capacity in bits per second of this decoder increase approximately linearly with block length. For j > 3 and a sufficiently low rate, the probability of error using this decoder on a binary symmetric channel is shown to decrease at least exponentially with a root of the block length. Some experimental results show that the actual probability of decoding error is much smaller than this theoretical bound.

11,592 citations

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TL;DR: The upper bound is obtained for a specific probabilistic nonsequential decoding algorithm which is shown to be asymptotically optimum for rates above R_{0} and whose performance bears certain similarities to that of sequential decoding algorithms.

Abstract: The probability of error in decoding an optimal convolutional code transmitted over a memoryless channel is bounded from above and below as a function of the constraint length of the code. For all but pathological channels the bounds are asymptotically (exponentially) tight for rates above R_{0} , the computational cutoff rate of sequential decoding. As a function of constraint length the performance of optimal convolutional codes is shown to be superior to that of block codes of the same length, the relative improvement increasing with rate. The upper bound is obtained for a specific probabilistic nonsequential decoding algorithm which is shown to be asymptotically optimum for rates above R_{0} and whose performance bears certain similarities to that of sequential decoding algorithms.

6,804 citations

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01 Mar 1973TL;DR: This paper gives a tutorial exposition of the Viterbi algorithm and of how it is implemented and analyzed, and increasing use of the algorithm in a widening variety of areas is foreseen.

Abstract: The Viterbi algorithm (VA) is a recursive optimal solution to the problem of estimating the state sequence of a discrete-time finite-state Markov process observed in memoryless noise. Many problems in areas such as digital communications can be cast in this form. This paper gives a tutorial exposition of the algorithm and of how it is implemented and analyzed. Applications to date are reviewed. Increasing use of the algorithm in a widening variety of areas is foreseen.

5,995 citations

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23 May 1993TL;DR: In this article, a new class of convolutional codes called turbo-codes, whose performances in terms of bit error rate (BER) are close to the Shannon limit, is discussed.

Abstract: A new class of convolutional codes called turbo-codes, whose performances in terms of bit error rate (BER) are close to the Shannon limit, is discussed. The turbo-code encoder is built using a parallel concatenation of two recursive systematic convolutional codes, and the associated decoder, using a feedback decoding rule, is implemented as P pipelined identical elementary decoders. >

5,963 citations

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TL;DR: The general problem of estimating the a posteriori probabilities of the states and transitions of a Markov source observed through a discrete memoryless channel is considered and an optimal decoding algorithm is derived.

Abstract: The general problem of estimating the a posteriori probabilities of the states and transitions of a Markov source observed through a discrete memoryless channel is considered. The decoding of linear block and convolutional codes to minimize symbol error probability is shown to be a special case of this problem. An optimal decoding algorithm is derived.

4,830 citations