Topic

# Set function

About: Set function is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1677 publications have been published within this topic receiving 47831 citations.

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TL;DR: It is shown that a “greedy” heuristic always produces a solution whose value is at least 1 −[(K − 1/K]K times the optimal value, which can be achieved for eachK and has a limiting value of (e − 1)/e, where e is the base of the natural logarithm.

Abstract: LetN be a finite set andz be a real-valued function defined on the set of subsets ofN that satisfies z(S)+z(T)źz(SźT)+z(SźT) for allS, T inN. Such a function is called submodular. We consider the problem maxSźN{a(S):|S|≤K,z(S) submodular}.
Several hard combinatorial optimization problems can be posed in this framework. For example, the problem of finding a maximum weight independent set in a matroid, when the elements of the matroid are colored and the elements of the independent set can have no more thanK colors, is in this class. The uncapacitated location problem is a special case of this matroid optimization problem.
We analyze greedy and local improvement heuristics and a linear programming relaxation for this problem. Our results are worst case bounds on the quality of the approximations. For example, whenz(S) is nondecreasing andz(0) = 0, we show that a "greedy" heuristic always produces a solution whose value is at least 1 ź[(K ź 1)/K]K times the optimal value. This bound can be achieved for eachK and has a limiting value of (e ź 1)/e, where e is the base of the natural logarithm.

4,103 citations

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01 Jan 1978

TL;DR: In this article, the authors considered the problem of finding a maximum weight independent set in a matroid, where the elements of the matroid are colored and the items of the independent set can have no more than K colors.

Abstract: LetN be a finite set andz be a real-valued function defined on the set of subsets ofN that satisfies z(S)+z(T)gez(SxcupT)+z(SxcapT) for allS, T inN. Such a function is called submodular. We consider the problem maxSsubN{a(S):|S|leK,z(S) submodular}. Several hard combinatorial optimization problems can be posed in this framework. For example, the problem of finding a maximum weight independent set in a matroid, when the elements of the matroid are colored and the elements of the independent set can have no more thanK colors, is in this class. The uncapacitated location problem is a special case of this matroid optimization problem. We analyze greedy and local improvement heuristics and a linear programming relaxation for this problem. Our results are worst case bounds on the quality of the approximations. For example, whenz(S) is nondecreasing andz(0) = 0, we show that a ldquogreedyrdquo heuristic always produces a solution whose value is at least 1 –[(K – 1)/K] K times the optimal value. This bound can be achieved for eachK and has a limiting value of (e – 1)/e, where e is the base of the natural logarithm.

3,351 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: The results of two kinds of test applications of a computer program for multidimensional scaling on the basis of essentially nonmetric data are reported to measures of interstimulus similarity and confusability obtained from some actual psychological experiments.

Abstract: A computer program is described that is designed to reconstruct the metric configuration of a set of points in Euclidean space on the basis of essentially nonmetric information about that configuration. A minimum set of Cartesian coordinates for the points is determined when the only available information specifies for each pair of those points—not the distance between them—but some unknown, fixed monotonic function of that distance. The program is proposed as a tool for reductively analyzing several types of psychological data, particularly measures of interstimulus similarity or confusability, by making explicit the multidimensional structure underlying such data.

2,461 citations

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Yale University

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the problem of identifying an unknown regular set from examples of its members and nonmembers is addressed, where the regular set is presented by a minimaMy adequate teacher, which can answer membership queries about the set and can also test a conjecture and indicate whether it is equal to the unknown set and provide a counterexample if not.

Abstract: The problem of identifying an unknown regular set from examples of its members and nonmembers is addressed. It is assumed that the regular set is presented by a minimaMy adequate Teacher, which can answer membership queries about the set and can also test a conjecture and indicate whether it is equal to the unknown set and provide a counterexample if not. (A counterexample is a string in the symmetric difference of the correct set and the conjectured set.) A learning algorithm L* is described that correctly learns any regular set from any minimally adequate Teacher in time polynomial in the number of states of the minimum dfa for the set and the maximum length of any counterexample provided by the Teacher. It is shown that in a stochastic setting the ability of the Teacher to test conjectures may be replaced by a random sampling oracle, EX( ). A polynomial-time learning algorithm is shown for a particular problem of context-free language identification.

2,157 citations

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20 Jun 2005

TL;DR: A new variational formulation for geometric active contours that forces the level set function to be close to a signed distance function, and therefore completely eliminates the need of the costly re-initialization procedure.

Abstract: In this paper, we present a new variational formulation for geometric active contours that forces the level set function to be close to a signed distance function, and therefore completely eliminates the need of the costly re-initialization procedure. Our variational formulation consists of an internal energy term that penalizes the deviation of the level set function from a signed distance function, and an external energy term that drives the motion of the zero level set toward the desired image features, such as object boundaries. The resulting evolution of the level set function is the gradient flow that minimizes the overall energy functional. The proposed variational level set formulation has three main advantages over the traditional level set formulations. First, a significantly larger time step can be used for numerically solving the evolution partial differential equation, and therefore speeds up the curve evolution. Second, the level set function can be initialized with general functions that are more efficient to construct and easier to use in practice than the widely used signed distance function. Third, the level set evolution in our formulation can be easily implemented by simple finite difference scheme and is computationally more efficient. The proposed algorithm has been applied to both simulated and real images with promising results.

2,005 citations