About: Settling is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 10120 publications have been published within this topic receiving 190140 citations.
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TL;DR: In this article, sediment deposition from individual sediment flows commonly involves more than one of these mechanisms acting either serially as the flow evolves or simultaneously on different grain populations, and the effects of hindered settling, dispersive pressure, and matrix buoyant lift are con entration dependent.
Abstract: Four principal mechanisms of deposition are effective in the formation of sediment gravity flow deposits. Grains deposited by traction sedimentation and suspension sedimentation respond individually and accumulate directly from bed and suspended loads, respectively. Those deposited by frictional freezing and cohesive freezing interact through either frictional contact or cohesive forces, respectively, and are deposited collectively, usually by plug formation. Sediment deposition from individual sediment flows commonly involves more than one of these mechanisms acting either serially as the flow evolves or simultaneously on different grain populations. Deposition from turbidity currents is treated in terms of three dynamic grain populations: 1) clay- to medium-grained sand-sized particles that can be fully suspended as individual grains by flow turbulence, 2) coarse-grained sand to small-pebble-sized gravel that can be fully suspended in large amounts mainly in highly concentrated turbulent suspensions where grain fall velocity is substantially reduced by hindered settling, and 3) pebble- and cobble-sized clasts having concentrations greater than 10 percent to 15 percent that will be supported largely by dispersive pressure resulting from clast collisions and by buoyant lift provided by the interstitial mixture of water and finer-grained sediment. The effects of hindered settling, dispersive pressure, and matrix buoyant lift are con entration dependent, and grain populations 2 and 3 are likely to be transported in large amounts only within flows having high particle concentrations, probably in excess of 20 percent solids by volume. Low-density turbidity currents, made up largely of grains of population 1, typically show an initial period of traction sedimentation, forming Bouma (Tb) and Tc) divisions, followed by one of mixed traction and suspension sedimentation (Td), and a terminal period of fine-grained suspension sedimentation (Te). The sediment loads of high-density turbidity currents commonly include grains belonging to populations 1, 2, and 3. Consequently, deposition often occurs as a series of discrete sedimentation waves as flows decelerate and individual grain populations can no longer be maintained in transport. Each sedimentation wave tends to show increasing unsteadiness and accelerating sedimentation rate as it evolves, passing from an initial stage of traction sedimentation, to one of mixed frictional freezing and suspension sedimentation within traction carpets, to a final stage of direct suspension sedimentation. Sequences of sedimentary structure divisions representing this succession of depositional stages are here termed the ecoR1-3) sequence, representing population 3 grains, and the S1-3) sequence, representing population 2. Deposition of the high-density suspended load leaves behind a residual low-density turbidity current composed largely of population 1 grains. At their distal ends, high-density turbidity currents deposit mainly by suspension sedimentation, forming thin (S3) divisions. These (S3) divisions are the same as Bouma (Ta) and, if subsequently capped by (Tb-e) deposited by the residual low-density flows, become the basal divisions of normal turbidities. Liquefied flows deposit by direct high-density suspension sedimentation. Grain flows of sand are characterized by frictional freezing and their deposits are limited mainly to angle-of-repose slipface units. Density-modified grain flows, in which larger clasts are partially supported by matrix buoyancy, and traction carpets, in which a dense frictional grain dispersion is driven by an overlying turbulent flow, are important in the buildup of natural deposits on submarine slopes. Cohesive debris flows depost sediment mainly by cohesive freezing, commonly modified by suspension sedimentation of the largest clasts.
TL;DR: In this article, a conceptual model for water and waste water filtration processes is presented and compared with the results of laboratory experiments, and applications of particle destabilization and particle transport are presented.
Abstract: H A conceptual model for water and waste water filtration processes is presented and compared with the results of laboratory experiments. Efficient filtration involves both particle destabilization and particle transport. Destabilization in filtration is similar to destabilization in coagulation; effective coagulants are observed to be effective “filter aids.” Particle transport in filtration is analogous to transport in flocculation processes. A particle size with a minimum contact opportunity exists ; smaller particles are transported by diffusion while larger particles are transported by interception and settling. Applications of these concepts to water and waste water filtration are presented.
TL;DR: A simple classification of sedimentary density flows, based on physical flow properties and grain-support mechanisms, and briefly discusses the likely characteristics of the deposited sediments is presented in this paper.
Abstract: The complexity of flow and wide variety of depositional processes operating in subaqueous density flows, combined with post-depositional consolidation and soft-sediment deformation, often make it difficult to interpret the characteristics of the original flow from the sedimentary record. This has led to considerable confusion of nomenclature in the literature. This paper attempts to clarify this situation by presenting a simple classification of sedimentary density flows, based on physical flow properties and grain-support mechanisms, and briefly discusses the likely characteristics of the deposited sediments. Cohesive flows are commonly referred to as debris flows and mud flows and defined on the basis of sediment characteristics. The boundary between cohesive and non-cohesive density flows (frictional flows) is poorly constrained, but dimensionless numbers may be of use to define flow thresholds. Frictional flows include a continuous series from sediment slides to turbidity currents. Subdivision of these flows is made on the basis of the dominant particle-support mechanisms, which include matrix strength (in cohesive flows), buoyancy, pore pressure, grain-to-grain interaction (causing dispersive pressure), Reynolds stresses (turbulence) and bed support (particles moved on the stationary bed). The dominant particle-support mechanism depends upon flow conditions, particle concentration, grain-size distribution and particle type. In hyperconcentrated density flows, very high sediment concentrations (>25 volume%) make particle interactions of major importance. The difference between hyperconcentrated density flows and cohesive flows is that the former are friction dominated. With decreasing sediment concentration, vertical particle sorting can result from differential settling, and flows in which this can occur are termed concentrated density flows. The boundary between hyperconcentrated and concentrated density flows is defined by a change in particle behaviour, such that denser or larger grains are no longer fully supported by grain interaction, thus allowing coarse-grain tail (or dense-grain tail) normal grading. The concentration at which this change occurs depends on particle size, sorting, composition and relative density, so that a single threshold concentration cannot be defined. Concentrated density flows may be highly erosive and subsequently deposit complete or incomplete Lowe and Bouma sequences. Conversely, hydroplaning at the base of debris flows, and possibly also in some hyperconcentrated flows, may reduce the fluid drag, thus allowing high flow velocities while preventing large-scale erosion. Flows with concentrations <9% by volume are true turbidity flows (sensuBagnold, 1962), in which fluid turbulence is the main particle-support mechanism. Turbidity flows and concentrated density flows can be subdivided on the basis of flow duration into instantaneous surges, longer duration surge-like flows and quasi-steady currents. Flow duration is shown to control the nature of the resulting deposits. Surge-like turbidity currents tend to produce classical Bouma sequences, whose nature at any one site depends on factors such as flow size, sediment type and proximity to source. In contrast, quasi-steady turbidity currents, generated by hyperpycnal river effluent, can deposit coarsening-up units capped by fining-up units (because of waxing and waning conditions respectively) and may also include thick units of uniform character (resulting from prolonged periods of near-steady conditions). Any flow type may progressively change character along the transport path, with transformation primarily resulting from reductions in sediment concentration through progressive entrainment of surrounding fluid and/or sediment deposition. The rate of fluid entrainment, and consequently flow transformation, is dependent on factors including slope gradient, lateral confinement, bed roughness, flow thickness and water depth. Flows with high and low sediment concentrations may co-exist in one transport event because of downflow transformations, flow stratification or shear layer development of the mixing interface with the overlying water (mixing cloud formation). Deposits of an individual flow event at one site may therefore form from a succession of different flow types, and this introduces considerable complexity into classifying the flow event or component flow types from the deposits.
01 Jan 1967
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed the principle of similarity for the prediction of stage-discharge relations in alluvial streams. But they did not consider the effect of the number of particles in the stream.
Abstract: 2. SEDIMENT PROPERTIES 2. 1 General remarks 2.2 Particle size characteristics 2. 3 Specific gravity 2.4 Settling velocity 2. 5 Other properties 3. HYDRAULICS OF ALLUVIAL STREAMS 3. 1 Some general definitions 3.2 Critical bed shear 3.3 Transport mechanisms 3.4 Bed configurations 3. 5 Shape effect 3. 6 The effective bed shear 4. THE SIMILARITY PRINCIPLE 4. 1 Basic parameters 4. 2 Hydraulic resistance of alluvial streams 4.3 Sediment discharge 4.4 Limitation of the theory 5. FLUVIOLOGY 5. 1 General aspects 5.2. Application of the principle of similarity 6. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES 6. 1 Prediction of stage-discharge relations 6.2 Design of channels
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of concentration of suspended particles upon their rate of settlement was examined experimentally, and the experimental results obtained in the present work were compared with those predicted from this theory.
Abstract: Summary The present work is concerned with the study of sedimentation and liquid-solid fluidisation. In the former, suspended solids are falling under the influence of gravity in a stationary fluid, while in the latter, the particles are kept in suspension by an upward flow of liquid. The object is to examine experimentally the effect of concentration of suspended particles upon their rate of settlement, and to find a satisfactory method of correlating the results. The present part of the experimental work has been confined to uniformly sized spherical particles, greater than 100 microns in diameter. As reported elsewhere, an attempt has been made to develop an expression, from theoretical considerations, for the rate of settling of suspensions, and the experimental results obtained in the present work are compared with those predicted from this theory. The work has been extended for comparison to liquid-solid fluidised systems.
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