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Shared memory

About: Shared memory is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 18729 publications have been published within this topic receiving 355144 citations.


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Proceedings Article
25 Apr 2012
TL;DR: Resilient Distributed Datasets is presented, a distributed memory abstraction that lets programmers perform in-memory computations on large clusters in a fault-tolerant manner and is implemented in a system called Spark, which is evaluated through a variety of user applications and benchmarks.
Abstract: We present Resilient Distributed Datasets (RDDs), a distributed memory abstraction that lets programmers perform in-memory computations on large clusters in a fault-tolerant manner. RDDs are motivated by two types of applications that current computing frameworks handle inefficiently: iterative algorithms and interactive data mining tools. In both cases, keeping data in memory can improve performance by an order of magnitude. To achieve fault tolerance efficiently, RDDs provide a restricted form of shared memory, based on coarse-grained transformations rather than fine-grained updates to shared state. However, we show that RDDs are expressive enough to capture a wide class of computations, including recent specialized programming models for iterative jobs, such as Pregel, and new applications that these models do not capture. We have implemented RDDs in a system called Spark, which we evaluate through a variety of user applications and benchmarks.

4,151 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: At its most elemental level, OpenMP is a set of compiler directives and callable runtime library routines that extend Fortran (and separately, C and C++ to express shared memory parallelism) and leaves the base language unspecified.
Abstract: At its most elemental level, OpenMP is a set of compiler directives and callable runtime library routines that extend Fortran (and separately, C and C++ to express shared memory parallelism. It leaves the base language unspecified, and vendors can implement OpenMP in any Fortran compiler. Naturally, to support pointers and allocatables, Fortran 90 and Fortran 95 require the OpenMP implementation to include additional semantics over Fortran 77. OpenMP leverages many of the X3H5 concepts while extending them to support coarse grain parallelism. The standard also includes a callable runtime library with accompanying environment variables.

3,318 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1987
TL;DR: A preliminary SDF software system for automatically generating assembly language code for DSP microcomputers is described, and two new efficiency techniques are introduced, static buffering and an extension to SDF to efficiently implement conditionals.
Abstract: Data flow is a natural paradigm for describing DSP applications for concurrent implementation on parallel hardware. Data flow programs for signal processing are directed graphs where each node represents a function and each arc represents a signal path. Synchronous data flow (SDF) is a special case of data flow (either atomic or large grain) in which the number of data samples produced or consumed by each node on each invocation is specified a priori. Nodes can be scheduled statically (at compile time) onto single or parallel programmable processors so the run-time overhead usually associated with data flow evaporates. Multiple sample rates within the same system are easily and naturally handled. Conditions for correctness of SDF graph are explained and scheduling algorithms are described for homogeneous parallel processors sharing memory. A preliminary SDF software system for automatically generating assembly language code for DSP microcomputers is described. Two new efficiency techniques are introduced, static buffering and an extension to SDF to efficiently implement conditionals.

1,985 citations

Book
15 Aug 1998
TL;DR: This book explains the forces behind this convergence of shared-memory, message-passing, data parallel, and data-driven computing architectures and provides comprehensive discussions of parallel programming for high performance and of workload-driven evaluation, based on understanding hardware-software interactions.
Abstract: The most exciting development in parallel computer architecture is the convergence of traditionally disparate approaches on a common machine structure. This book explains the forces behind this convergence of shared-memory, message-passing, data parallel, and data-driven computing architectures. It then examines the design issues that are critical to all parallel architecture across the full range of modern design, covering data access, communication performance, coordination of cooperative work, and correct implementation of useful semantics. It not only describes the hardware and software techniques for addressing each of these issues but also explores how these techniques interact in the same system. Examining architecture from an application-driven perspective, it provides comprehensive discussions of parallel programming for high performance and of workload-driven evaluation, based on understanding hardware-software interactions. * synthesizes a decade of research and development for practicing engineers, graduate students, and researchers in parallel computer architecture, system software, and applications development * presents in-depth application case studies from computer graphics, computational science and engineering, and data mining to demonstrate sound quantitative evaluation of design trade-offs * describes the process of programming for performance, including both the architecture-independent and architecture-dependent aspects, with examples and case-studies * illustrates bus-based and network-based parallel systems with case studies of more than a dozen important commercial designs Table of Contents 1 Introduction 2 Parallel Programs 3 Programming for Performance 4 Workload-Driven Evaluation 5 Shared Memory Multiprocessors 6 Snoop-based Multiprocessor Design 7 Scalable Multiprocessors 8 Directory-based Cache Coherence 9 Hardware-Software Tradeoffs 10 Interconnection Network Design 11 Latency Tolerance 12 Future Directions APPENDIX A Parallel Benchmark Suites

1,571 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1997
TL;DR: Eraser as mentioned in this paper uses binary rewriting techniques to monitor every shared memory reference and verify that consistent locking behavior is observed in lock-based multi-threaded programs, which can be used to detect data races.
Abstract: Multi-threaded programming is difficult and error prone. It is easy to make a mistake in synchronization that produces a data race, yet it can be extremely hard to locate this mistake during debugging. This paper describes a new tool, called Eraser, for dynamically detecting data races in lock-based multi-threaded programs. Eraser uses binary rewriting techniques to monitor every shared memory reference and verify that consistent locking behavior is observed. We present several case studies, including undergraduate coursework and a multi-threaded Web search engine, that demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

1,424 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202319
202253
2021253
2020434
2019515
2018565