Topic

# Shear stress

About: Shear stress is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 35938 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 906814 citation(s).

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Abstract: Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding surfaces are separated by gouge composed of Montmorillonite or vermiculite the friction can be very low.

3,237 citations

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Virginia Tech

^{1}Abstract: A higher-order shear deformation theory of laminated composite plates is developed. The theory contains the same dependent unknowns as in the first-order shear deformation theory of Whitney and Pagano (1970), but accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains through the thickness of the plate. Exact closed-form solutions of symmetric cross-ply laminates are obtained and the results are compared with three-dimensional elasticity solutions and first-order shear deformation theory solutions. The present theory predicts the deflections and stresses more accurately when compared to the first-order theory.

3,215 citations

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TL;DR: The functional regulation of the endothelium by local hemodynamic shear stress provides a model for understanding the focal propensity of atherosclerosis in the setting of systemic factors and may help guide future therapeutic strategies.

Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in the developed world and
nearly the leading cause in the developing world, is associated with systemic
risk factors including hypertension, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes
mellitus, among others. Nonetheless, atherosclerosis remains a geometrically
focal disease, preferentially affecting the outer edges of vessel bifurcations.
In these predisposed areas, hemodynamic shear stress, the frictional force
acting on the endothelial cell surface as a result of blood flow, is weaker
than in protected regions. Studies have identified hemodynamic shear stress
as an important determinant of endothelial function and phenotype. Arterial-level
shear stress (>15 dyne/cm2) induces endothelial quiescence and
an atheroprotective gene expression profile, while low shear stress (<4
dyne/cm2), which is prevalent at atherosclerosis-prone sites, stimulates
an atherogenic phenotype. The functional regulation of the endothelium by
local hemodynamic shear stress provides a model for understanding the focal
propensity of atherosclerosis in the setting of systemic factors and may help
guide future therapeutic strategies.

2,951 citations

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Abstract: It is shown that a sphere moving through a very viscous liquid with velocity V relative to a uniform simple shear, the translation velocity being parallel to the streamlines and measured relative to the streamline through the centre, experiences a lift force 81·2μVa2k½/v½ + smaller terms perpendicular to the flow direction, which acts to deflect the particle towards the streamlines moving in the direction opposite to V. Here, a denotes the radius of the sphere, κ the magnitude of the velocity gradient, and μ and v the viscosity and kinematic viscosity, respectively. The relevance of the result to the observations by Segree & Silberberg (1962) of small spheres in Poiseuille flow is discussed briefly. Comments are also made about the problem of a sphere in a parabolic velocity profile and the functional dependence of the lift upon the parameters is obtained.

2,662 citations

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TL;DR: These studies confirm earlier findings under steady flow conditions that plaques tend to form in areas of low, rather than high, shear stress, but indicate in addition that marked oscillations in the direction of wall shear may enhance atherogenesis.

Abstract: Fluid velocities were measured by laser Doppler velocimetry under conditions of pulsatile flow in a scale model of the human carotid bifurcation. Flow velocity and wall shear stress at five axial and four circumferential positions were compared with intimal plaque thickness at corresponding locations in carotid bifurcations obtained from cadavers. Velocities and wall shear stresses during diastole were similar to those found previously under steady flow conditions, but these quantities oscillated in both magnitude and direction during the systolic phase. At the inner wall of the internal carotid sinus, in the region of the flow divider, wall shear stress was highest (systole = 41 dynes/cm2, diastole = 10 dynes/cm2, mean = 17 dynes/cm2) and remained unidirectional during systole. Intimal thickening in this location was minimal. At the outer wall of the carotid sinus where intimal plaques were thickest, mean shear stress was low (-0.5 dynes/cm2) but the instantaneous shear stress oscillated between -7 and +4 dynes/cm2. Along the side walls of the sinus, intimal plaque thickness was greater than in the region of the flow divider and circumferential oscillations of shear stress were prominent. With all 20 axial and circumferential measurement locations considered, strong correlations were found between intimal thickness and the reciprocal of maximum shear stress (r = 0.90, p less than 0.0005) or the reciprocal of mean shear stress (r = 0.82, p less than 0.001). An index which takes into account oscillations of wall shear also correlated strongly with intimal thickness (r = 0.82, p less than 0.001). When only the inner wall and outer wall positions were taken into account, correlations of lesion thickness with the inverse of maximum wall shear and mean wall shear were 0.94 (p less than 0.001) and 0.95 (p less than 0.001), respectively, and with the oscillatory shear index, 0.93 (p less than 0.001). These studies confirm earlier findings under steady flow conditions that plaques tend to form in areas of low, rather than high, shear stress, but indicate in addition that marked oscillations in the direction of wall shear may enhance atherogenesis.

2,484 citations