About: Shear zone is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9818 publications have been published within this topic receiving 360712 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Two end member models of how the high elevations in Tibet formed are (i) continuous thickening and widespread viscous flow of the crust and mantle of the entire plateau and (ii) time-dependent, localized shear between coherent lithospheric blocks.
Abstract: Two end member models of how the high elevations in Tibet formed are (i) continuous thickening and widespread viscous flow of the crust and mantle of the entire plateau and (ii) time-dependent, localized shear between coherent lithospheric blocks. Recent studies of Cenozoic deformation, magmatism, and seismic structure lend support to the latter. Since India collided with Asia ∼55 million years ago, the rise of the high Tibetan plateau likely occurred in three main steps, by successive growth and uplift of 300- to 500-kilometer-wide crustal thrust-wedges. The crust thickened, while the mantle, decoupled beneath gently dipping shear zones, did not. Sediment infilling, bathtub-like, of dammed intermontane basins formed flat high plains at each step. The existence of magmatic belts younging northward implies that slabs of Asian mantle subducted one after another under ranges north of the Himalayas. Subduction was oblique and accompanied by extrusion along the left lateral strike-slip faults that slice Tibet's east side. These mechanisms, akin to plate tectonics hidden by thickening crust, with slip-partitioning, account for the dominant growth of the Tibet Plateau toward the east and northeast.
TL;DR: In this paper, physical factors likely to affect the genesis of the various fault rocks are examined in relation to the energy budget of fault zones, the main velocity modes of faulting and the type of fault, whether thrust, wrench, or normal.
Abstract: Physical factors likely to affect the genesis of the various fault rocks—frictional properties, temperature, effective stress normal to the fault and differential stress—are examined in relation to the energy budget of fault zones, the main velocity modes of faulting and the type of faulting, whether thrust, wrench, or normal. In a conceptual model of a major fault zone cutting crystalline quartzo-feldspathic crust, a zone of elastico-frictional (EF) behaviour generating random-fabric fault rocks (gouge—breccia—cataclasite series—pseudotachylyte) overlies a region where quasi-plastic (QP) processes of rock deformation operate in ductile shear zones with the production of mylonite series rocks possessing strong tectonite fabrics. In some cases, fault rocks developed by transient seismic faulting can be distinguished from those generated by slow aseismic shear. Random-fabric fault rocks may form as a result of seismic faulting within the ductile shear zones from time to time, but tend to be obliterated by continued shearing. Resistance to shear within the fault zone reaches a peak value (greatest for thrusts and least for normal faults) around the EF/QP transition level, which for normal geothermal gradients and an adequate supply of water, occurs at depths of 10–15 km.
TL;DR: C coupled thermal–mechanical numerical models are used to show that these two processes—channel flow and ductile extrusion—may be dynamically linked through the effects of surface denudation focused at the edge of a plateau that is underlain by low-viscosity material.
Abstract: Recent interpretations of Himalayan–Tibetan tectonics have proposed that channel flow in the middle to lower crust can explain outward growth of the Tibetan plateau1,2,3, and that ductile extrusion of high-grade metamorphic rocks between coeval normal- and thrust-sense shear zones can explain exhumation of the Greater Himalayan sequence4,5,6,7. Here we use coupled thermal–mechanical numerical models to show that these two processes—channel flow and ductile extrusion—may be dynamically linked through the effects of surface denudation focused at the edge of a plateau that is underlain by low-viscosity material. Our models provide an internally self-consistent explanation for many observed features of the Himalayan–Tibetan system8,9,10.
TL;DR: In this article, the deformation of two granitic massifs along a dextral wrench fault zone (the South Armorican Shear Zone) is examined at the sample and grain scales.
Abstract: The deformation of two granitic massifs along a dextral wrench fault zone (the South Armorican Shear Zone) is examined at the sample and grain scales. We note that an association of continuous-discontinuous deformation mechanisms is responsible for the mylonitisation at the grain scale. The general characteristics of the deformation (strain, ellipsoid type, strain regime, non-coaxial model) and quartz fabrics measured in these mylonites at each of the mylonitisation stages described, are also discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the interpretation of a new set of closely spaced marine magnetic profiles that complements previous data in the northeastern and southwestern parts of the South China Sea (Nan Hai) and confirm that seafloor spreading was asymmetric and included at least one ridge jump.
Abstract: We present the interpretation of a new set of closely spaced marine magnetic profiles that complements previous data in the northeastern and southwestern parts of the South China Sea (Nan Hai). This interpretation shows that seafloor spreading was asymmetric and confirms that it included at least one ridge jump. Discontinuities in the seafloor fabric, characterized by large differences in basement depth and roughness, appear to be related to variations in spreading rate. Between anomalies 11 and 7 (32 to 27 Ma), spreading at an intermediate, average full rate of ≈50 mm/yr created relatively smooth basement, now thickly blanketed by sediments. The ridge then jumped to the south and created rough basement, now much shallower and covered with thinner sediments than in the north. This episode lasted from anomaly 6b to anomaly 5c (27 to ≈16 Ma) and the average spreading rate was slower, ≈35 mm/yr. After 27 Ma, spreading appears to have developed first in the eastern part of the basin and to have propagated towards the southwest in two major steps, at the time of anomalies 6b-7, and at the time of anomaly 6. Each step correlates with a variation of the ridge orientation, from nearly E-W to NE-SW, and with a variation in the spreading rate. Spreading appears to have stopped synchronously along the ridge, at about 15.5 Ma. From computed fits of magnetic isochrons, we calculate 10 poles of finite rotation between the times of magnetic anomalies 11 and 5c. The poles permit reconstruction of the Oligo-Miocene movements of Southeast Asian blocks north and south of the South China Sea. Using such reconstructions, we test quantitatively a simple scenario for the opening of the sea in which seafloor spreading results from the extrusion of Indochina relative to South China, in response to the penetration of India into Asia. This alone yields between 500 and 600 km of left-lateral motion on the Red River-Ailao Shan shear zone, with crustal shortening in the San Jiang region and crustal extension in Tonkin. The offset derived from the fit of magnetic isochrons on the South China Sea floor is compatible with the offset of geological markers north and south of the Red River Zone. The first phases of extension of the continental margins of the basin are probably related to motion on the Wang Chao and Three Pagodas Faults, in addition to the Red River Fault. That Indochina rotated at least 12° relative to South China implies that large-scale “domino” models are inadequate to describe the Cenozoic tectonics of Southeast Asia. The cessation of spreading after 16 Ma appears to be roughly synchronous with the final increments of left-lateral shear and normal uplift in the Ailao Shan (18 Ma), as well as with incipient collisions between the Australian and the Eurasian plates. Hence no other causes than the activation of new fault zones within the India-Asia collision zone, north and east of the Red River Fault, and perhaps increased resistance to extrusion along the SE edge of Sundaland, appear to be required to terminate seafloor spreading in the largest marginal basin of the western Pacific and to change the sense of motion on the largest strike-slip fault of SE Asia.