Topic

# Shearing (physics)

About: Shearing (physics) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 10756 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 225220 citation(s).

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Abstract: Extensive data of the strength and dilatancy of 17 sands in axisymmetric or plane strain at different densities and confining pressures are collated. The critical state angle of shearing resistance of soil which is shearing at constant volume is principally a function of mineralogy and can readily be determined experimentally within a margin of about 1°, being roughly 33° for quartz and 40° for feldspar. The extra angle of shearing of ‘dense’ soil is correlated to its rate of dilation and thence to its relative density and mean effective stress, combined in a new relative dilatancy index. The data of o′max – o′crit in triaxial or plane strain are separately fitted within a typical margin of about 2°, though the streneth of certain sands is underpredicted in the 1000–10000 kN/m2 range owing to the continued dilation of their crush-resistant grains. The practical consequences of these new correlations are assessed, with regard to both laboratory and field testing procedures. L'auteur analyse de nombreuses d...

1,970 citations

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Abstract: Within a granular material stress is transmitted by forces exerted at points of mutual contact between particles. When the particles are close together and deformation of the assembly is slow, contacts are sustained for long times, and these forces consist of normal reactions and the associated tangential forces due to friction. When the particles are widely spaced and deformation is rapid, on the other hand, contacts are brief and may be regarded as collisions, during which momentum is transferred. While constitutive relations are available which model both these situations, in many cases the average contact times lie between the two extremes. The purpose of the present work is to propose constitutive relations and boundary conditions for this intermediate case and to solve the corresponding equations of motion for plane shear of a cohesionless granular material between infinite horizontal plates. It is shown that, in general, not all the material between the plates participates in shearing, and the solutions for the shearing material are coupled to a yield condition for the non-shearing material to give a complete solution of the problem.

1,432 citations

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Abstract: This paper describes laboratory investigations of the deformation characteristics of rock joints under normal and shear loading. Normal deformability was studied by conducting loading/unloading and repeated load cycling tests on a wide variety of fresh and weathered joints in five different rock types. The data invariably showed non-linear behaviour, irrespective of the rock and joint type. A hyperbolic function is suggested to describe the stress-closure/opening curves of joints. Quantitative relations between normal deformability and relevant joint parameters (aperture, wall strength and roughness) are developed. Tentative conclusions on the changes in normal stiffness during shearing are also presented. The behaviour of dislocated (mismatching) joints is studied qualitatively and analytically. Shear deformability was studied by performing direct shear tests under normal stresses in the range of engineering interest. It is shown that behaviout in the pre-peak range is invariably non-linear depending on the joint type, and can be adequately described by easily measured parameters and hyperbolic functions.

1,296 citations

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Abstract: In the course of viscometric measurements of concentrated suspensions of spheres in Newtonian fluids using a Couette device, Gadala-Maria & Acrivos (1980) observed a decrease in the suspension viscosity after long periods of shearing even though the viscosity of the pure suspending fluid remained constant under identical conditions. In the present work we demonstrate that this phenomenon is due to the shear-induced migration of particles out of the sheared Couette gap and into the fluid reservoir, which reduces the particle concentration in the gap and thereby the observed viscosity. We show further that this rate of viscosity decrease is consistent with a gap-limited shear-induced diffusion process normal to the plane of shear, with the relevant diffusion coefficient being proportional to is the applied shear rate.Additional experiments also uncovered a new phenomenon - a short-term increase in the viscosity upon initial shearing of a suspension in a Couette device - which was attributed to the diffusive migration of particles across the width of the Couette gap and thus was used to infer values of the corresponding diffusion coefficient within the plane of shear parallel to gradients in fluid velocity.In the theoretical part we demonstrate that the particle migrations that led to these observed phenomena may be explained in terms of the irreversible interparticle interactions that occur in these suspensions. From simple arguments, these interactions are shown to lead to effective diffusivities both normal to the plane of shear and normal to the direction of fluid motion within the plane of shear whose estimated magnitudes are comparable with those that were inferred from the experimental measurements. Furthermore, these interactions should induce, within a shear flow, particle drifts from regions of high to low shear stress, which are estimated to be of sufficient intensity to account for the observed initial viscosity increase mentioned above.

1,097 citations

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01 Mar 1972-

Abstract: Lodge's molecular network theories are quite successful in describing the linear viscoelastic behavior of polymer solutions and melts, but cannot account for the rate‐of‐strain dependence of various material functions By allowing the junction‐creation rate and the probability of loss of junctions to depend on the second invariant of the rate‐of‐strain tensor, more realistic constitutive equations were obtained Two rheological models are proposed by assuming two different mechanisms for the effect of the rate of strain on the kinetics of the network The experimental data on three fluids (representative of eight viscoelastic fluids) are used to test the models in various flow situations For steady simple shearing and small‐amplitude, sinusoidal simple shearing, both model A and model B are capable of fitting the four functions η, −(τ11−τ22), η′, and G′ rather well over many decades of shear rate or frequency For suddenly changing flow experiments model A is inadequate Model B however appears to be the

1,082 citations