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Sign language

About: Sign language is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 11644 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 187322 citation(s). The topic is also known as: sign languages.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Nicholas Evans1, Stephen C. Levinson2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: This target article summarizes decades of cross-linguistic work by typologists and descriptive linguists, showing just how few and unprofound the universal characteristics of language are, once the authors honestly confront the diversity offered to us by the world's 6,000 to 8,000 languages.
Abstract: Talk of linguistic universals has given cognitive scientists the impression that languages are all built to a common pattern. In fact, there are vanishingly few universals of language in the direct sense that all languages exhibit them. Instead, diversity can be found at almost every level of linguistic organization. This fundamentally changes the object of enquiry from a cognitive science perspective. This target article summarizes decades of cross-linguistic work by typologists and descriptive linguists, showing just how few and unprofound the universal characteristics of language are, once we honestly confront the diversity offered to us by the world's 6,000 to 8,000 languages. After surveying the various uses of "universal," we illustrate the ways languages vary radically in sound, meaning, and syntactic organization, and then we examine in more detail the core grammatical machinery of recursion, constituency, and grammatical relations. Although there are significant recurrent patterns in organization, these are better explained as stable engineering solutions satisfying multiple design constraints, reflecting both cultural-historical factors and the constraints of human cognition. Linguistic diversity then becomes the crucial datum for cognitive science: we are the only species with a communication system that is fundamentally variable at all levels. Recognizing the true extent of structural diversity in human language opens up exciting new research directions for cognitive scientists, offering thousands of different natural experiments given by different languages, with new opportunities for dialogue with biological paradigms concerned with change and diversity, and confronting us with the extraordinary plasticity of the highest human skills.

1,320 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Thad Starner1, Joshua Weaver1, Alex Pentland1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Two real-time hidden Markov model-based systems for recognizing sentence-level continuous American sign language (ASL) using a single camera to track the user's unadorned hands are presented.
Abstract: We present two real-time hidden Markov model-based systems for recognizing sentence-level continuous American sign language (ASL) using a single camera to track the user's unadorned hands. The first system observes the user from a desk mounted camera and achieves 92 percent word accuracy. The second system mounts the camera in a cap worn by the user and achieves 98 percent accuracy (97 percent with an unrestricted grammar). Both experiments use a 40-word lexicon.

1,284 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Charles E. Osgood1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: The relation of the intensity of a need to the amount of perceptual distortion is compared to a preliminary report on "Emotionality and perceptual defense."
Abstract: s, 1934, 8, No. 153. 50. KARWOSKI, T. F., & BERTHOLD, F., JR. Psychological studies in semantics: II. Reliability of free association tests. /. soc. Psychol, 1945,22,87-102. 51. KARWOSKI, T. F., GRAMLICH, F. W., & ARNOTT, P. Psychological studiesin semantics: I. Free association reactions to words, drawings, and NATURE AND MEASUREMENT OF MEANING 235 objects. J, soc. PsychoL, 1944, 20, 233-247. 52. KARWOSKI, T. F., & ODBERT, H. S. Color-music. PsychoL Monogr., 1938, 50, No. 2 (Whole No. 222). 53. KARWOSKI, T. F., ODBERT, H. S., & OSGOOD, C. E. Studies in synesthetic thinking: II. The roles of form in visual responses to music. J. gen. PsychoL, 1942, 26, 199-222. 54. KARWOSKI, T. F., & SCHACHTER, J. Psychological studies in semantics: III. Reaction times for similarity and difference. J. soc, PsychoL, 1948, 28, 103-120. 55. KELLER, MARGARET. Mediated generalization: the generalization of a conditioned galvanic skin response established to a pictured object. Amer. J. PsychoL, 1943, 56, 438448. 56. KENT, GRACE H., & ROSANOFF, A, J. A study of association in insanity. Amer. J. Insanity, 1910, 67, 37-96, 317-390. 57. KOFFKA, K. Principles of gestalt psychology. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1935. 58. KOHLER, W. Tlie mentality of apes. (Trans, by E. Winter.) New York: Harcourt Brace, 1925. 59. KOTLIAREVSKY, L. I. Cardio-vascular conditioned reflexes to direct and to verbal stimuli (trans, from Russian title), 1936. PsychoL Abstracts, 1939, 13, No. 4046. 60. Langfeld, H. S. Note on a case of chromaesthesia. PsychoL Bull., 1914, 11, 113-114. 61. Lazarus, R. S., & McCLEARY, R. A. Autonomic discrimination without awareness: A study of subception. PsychoL Rev., 1951, 58, 113-122, 62. LEVINE, R., CHEIN, I., & MURPHY, G. The relation of the intensity of a need to the amount of perceptual distortion: a preliminary report. /. PsychoL, 1942, 13, 283-293. 63. LYNCH, C. A. The memory values of certain alleged emotionally toned words. /. exper. Psycho!., 1932, 15, 298-315. 64. MCCLELLAND, D. C., & ATKINSON, J. W. The projective expression of needs: I. The effect of different intensities of the hunger drive on perception. /. PsychoL, 1948, 25, 205-222. 65. McGiNNiES, E. Emotionality and perceptual defense. PsychoL Rev., 1949, 56, 244-251. 66. McGiNNiES, E. Discussion of Howes' and Solomon's note on \"Emotionality and perceptual defense,\" PsychoL Rev., 1950, 57, 235-240. 67. MAIER, N. R. F. Reasoning in humans. III. The mechanisms of equivalent stimuli and of reasoning. /. exp. PsychoL, 1945, 35, 349-360. 68. MALINOWSKI, B. The problem of learning in primitive languages. Supplement in C. K. Ogden, & I. A. Richards. The meaning of meaning. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1938. 69. MARBE, K. Experimentell-psychologische Untersuchungen fiber das Urteil. Leipzig: Engelmann, 1901. 70. MASON, M. Changes in the galvanic skin response accompanying reports of changes in meaning during oral repetition. /. gen. PsychoL, 1941, 25, 353-401. 71. MAUSNER, B., & SIEGEL, A. The effect of variation in \"value\" on perceptual thresholds. J. abnorm, soc. PsychoL, 1950, 45, 760-763. 72. MAX, L. W. An experimental study of the motor theory of consciousness. III. Action-current responses in deaf-mutes during sleep, sensory stimulation, and dreams. /. comp. PsychoL, 1935, 19, 469486, 73. MAX, L. W. An experimental study of the motor theory of consciousness. IV. Action-current responses in the deaf during awakening, 236 CHARLES E. OSGOOD kinaesthetic imagery, and abstract thinking. J. conip. Psycho!,., 1937, 24, 301-344. 74. MELTON, A. W., & IRWIN, J. McQ. The influence of degree of interpolated learning on retroactive inhibition and the overt transfer of specific response. Amer. J, Psycho!., 1940, 53, 173-203. 75. METZNER, C. A. The influence of preliminary stimulation upon human eyelid responses during conditioning and during subsequent heteromodalgeneralization. Sitmm. Doct. Diss. Univ. Wis., 1942, 7,

1,130 citations



Proceedings ArticleDOI
Thad Starner1, Alex Pentland1Institutions (1)
21 Nov 1995
TL;DR: A real-time HMM-based system for recognizing sentence level American Sign Language (ASL) which attains a word accuracy of 99.2% without explicitly modeling the fingers.
Abstract: Hidden Markov models (HMMs) have been used prominently and successfully in speech recognition and, more recently, in handwriting recognition. Consequently, they seem ideal for visual recognition of complex, structured hand gestures such as are found in sign language. We describe a real-time HMM-based system for recognizing sentence level American Sign Language (ASL) which attains a word accuracy of 99.2% without explicitly modeling the fingers.

877 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202220
2021658
2020833
2019730
2018647
2017645