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Signal transduction

About: Signal transduction is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 122628 publications have been published within this topic receiving 8209258 citations. The topic is also known as: GO:0007165.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Molecular genetic and biochemical studies described here suggest that, as in the case of growth factor receptors of higher eukaryotic cells, Ire1p oligomerizes in response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER and is phosphorylated in trans by otherIre1p molecules as a result of oligomerization.
Abstract: The transmembrane kinase Ire1p is required for activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), the increase in transcription of genes encoding endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins that occurs in response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. Ire1p spans the ER membrane (or the nuclear membrane with which the ER is continuous), with its kinase domain localized in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. Consistent with this arrangement, it has been proposed that Ire1p senses the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER and transmits the signal across the membrane toward the transcription machinery, possibly by phosphorylating downstream components of the UPR pathway. Molecular genetic and biochemical studies described here suggest that, as in the case of growth factor receptors of higher eukaryotic cells, Ire1p oligomerizes in response to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER and is phosphorylated in trans by other Ire1p molecules as a result of oligomerization. In addition to its kinase domain, a C-terminal tail domain of Ire1p is required for induction of the UPR. The role of the tail is probably to bind other proteins that transmit the unfolded protein signal to the nucleus.

12,185 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of current knowledge on the process of apoptosis including morphology, biochemistry, the role of apoptoses in health and disease, detection methods, as well as a discussion of potential alternative forms of apoptotic proteins.
Abstract: The process of programmed cell death, or apoptosis, is generally characterized by distinct morphological characteristics and energy-dependent biochemical mechanisms. Apoptosis is considered a vital component of various processes including normal cell turnover, proper development and functioning of the immune system, hormone-dependent atrophy, embryonic development and chemical-induced cell death. Inappropriate apoptosis (either too little or too much) is a factor in many human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer. The ability to modulate the life or death of a cell is recognized for its immense therapeutic potential. Therefore, research continues to focus on the elucidation and analysis of the cell cycle machinery and signaling pathways that control cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To that end, the field of apoptosis research has been moving forward at an alarmingly rapid rate. Although many of the key apoptotic proteins have been identified, the molecular mechanisms of action or inaction of these proteins remain to be elucidated. The goal of this review is to provide a general overview of current knowledge on the process of apoptosis including morphology, biochemistry, the role of apoptosis in health and disease, detection methods, as well as a discussion of potential alternative forms of apoptosis.

10,744 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
19 Mar 2010-Cell
TL;DR: The role of PRRs, their signaling pathways, and how they control inflammatory responses are discussed.

6,987 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is now becoming clear that lipid micro-environments on the cell surface — known as lipid rafts — also take part in this process of signalling transduction, where protein–protein interactions result in the activation of signalling cascades.
Abstract: Signal transduction is initiated by complex protein-protein interactions between ligands, receptors and kinases, to name only a few. It is now becoming clear that lipid micro-environments on the cell surface -- known as lipid rafts -- also take part in this process. Lipid rafts containing a given set of proteins can change their size and composition in response to intra- or extracellular stimuli. This favours specific protein-protein interactions, resulting in the activation of signalling cascades.

6,080 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
28 Aug 1998-Science
TL;DR: Apoptosis is a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number in tissues and to eliminate individual cells that threaten the animal's survival.
Abstract: Apoptosis is a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number in tissues and to eliminate individual cells that threaten the animal's survival. Certain cells have unique sensors, termed death receptors, on their surface. Death receptors detect the presence of extracellular death signals and, in response, they rapidly ignite the cell's intrinsic apoptosis machinery.

5,968 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20232,989
20225,166
20213,971
20204,179
20194,445
20184,585