About: Silicic is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2824 publications have been published within this topic receiving 123675 citations.
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TL;DR: In this article, a model for the generation of intermediate and silicic igneous rocks is presented, based on experimental data and numerical modeling, which is directed at subduction-related magmatism, but has general applicability to magmas generated in other plate tectonic settings, including continental rift zones.
Abstract: A model for the generation of intermediate and silicic igneous rocks is presented, based on experimental data and numerical modelling. The model is directed at subduction-related magmatism, but has general applicability to magmas generated in other plate tectonic settings, including continental rift zones. In the model mantlederived hydrous basalts emplaced as a succession of sills into the lower crust generate a deep crustal hot zone. Numerical modelling of the hot zone shows that melts are generated from two distinct sources; partial crystallization of basalt sills to produce residual H2O-rich melts; and partial melting of pre-existing crustal rocks. Incubation times between the injection of the first sill and generation of residual melts from basalt crystallization are controlled by the initial geotherm, the magma input rate and the emplacement depth. After this incubation period, the melt fraction and composition of residual melts are controlled by the temperature of the crust into which the basalt is intruded. Heat and H2O transfer from the crystallizing basalt promote partial melting of the surrounding crust, which can include meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous basement rocks and earlier basalt intrusions. Mixing of residual and crustal partial melts leads to diversity in isotope and trace element chemistry. Hot zone melts are H2O-rich. Consequently, they have low viscosity and density, and can readily detach from their source and ascend rapidly. In the case of adiabatic ascent the magma attains a super-liquidus state, because of the relative slopes of the adiabat and the liquidus. This leads to resorption of any entrained crystals or country rock xenoliths. Crystallization begins only when the ascending magma intersects its H2O-saturated liquidus at shallow depths. Decompression and degassing are the driving forces behind crystallization, which takes place at shallow depth on timescales of decades or less. Degassing and crystallization at shallow depth lead to large increases in viscosity and stalling of the magma to form volcano-feeding magma chambers and shallow plutons. It is proposed that chemical diversity in arc magmas is largely acquired in the lower crust, whereas textural diversity is related to shallow-level crystallization.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the effect of pre-emptive and preemptive gradients in T and O 2 in a variety of compositionally zoned ash flow tuffs.
Abstract: Every large eruption of nonbasaltic magma taps a magma reservoir that is thermally and compositionally zoned. Most small eruptions also tap parts of heterogeneous and evolving magmatic systems. Several kinds of compositionally zoned ash flow tuffs provide examples of preemptive gradients in T and ƒO2, in chemical and isotopic composition, and in the variety, abundance, and composition of phenocrysts. Such gradients help to constrain the mechanisms of magmatic differentiation operating in each system. Roofward decreases in both T and phenocryst content suggest water concentration gradients in magma chambers. Wide compositional gaps are common features of large eruptions, proving the existence of such gaps in a variety of magmatic systems. Nearly all magmatic systems are ‘fundamentally basaltic’ in the sense that mantle-derived magmas supply heat and mass to crustal systems that evolve a variety of compositional ranges. Feedback between crustal melting and interception of basaltic intrusions focuses and amplifies magmatic anomalies, suppresses basaltic volcanism, produces and sustains crustal magma chambers, and sometimes culminates in large-scale diapirism. Degassing of basalt crystallizing in the roots of these systems provides a flux of He, CO2, S, halogens, and other components, some of which may influence chemical transport in the overlying, more silicic zones. Basaltic magmas become andesitic by concurrent fractionation and assimilation of partial melts over a large depth range during protracted upward percolation in a plexus of crustal conduits. Zonation in the andesitic-dacitic compositional range develops subsequently within magma chambers, primarily by crystal fractionation. Some dacitic and rhyolitic liquids may separate from less-silicic parents by means of ascending boundary layers along the walls of convecting magma chambers. Many rhyolites, however, are direct partial melts of crustal rocks, and still others fractionate from crystal-rich intermediate parents. The zoning of rhyolitic magma is accomplished predominantly by liquid state thermodiffusion and volatile complexing; liquid structural gradients may be important, and thermal gradients across magma chamber boundary layers are critical. Intracontinental silicic batholiths form where extensional tectonism favors coalescence of crustal partial melts instead of hybridization with the intrusive basaltic magma. Cordilleran batholiths, however, result from prolonged diffuse injection of the crust by basalt that hybridizes, fractionates, and preheats the crust with pervasive mafic to intermediate forerunners, culminating in large-scale diapiric mobilization of partially molten zones from which granodioritic magmas separate. Much of the variability among magmatic systems probably reflects the depth variation of relative rates of transport of magma, heat, and volatile components, as controlled in turn by the orientation and relative magnitudes of principal stresses in the lithosphere, the thickness and composition of the affected crust, and variations in the rate and longevity of basaltic magma supply. Extension of the lithosphere may reduce the susceptibility of basaltic magmas to hybridization in the crust, but it can also enhance the role of mantle-derived volatiles in chemical transport.
TL;DR: Granitic-rhyolitic liquids were produced experimentally from moderately hydrous (1.7-2.3% H2O) medium-to-high K basaltic compositions at 700 MPa and fO2 controlled from Ni-NiO −1.3 to +4.5% as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Granitic—rhyolitic liquids were produced experimentally from moderately hydrous (1.7–2.3 wt% H2O) medium-to-high K basaltic compositions at 700 MPa and fO2 controlled from Ni-NiO −1.3 to +4. Amount and composition of evolved liquids and coexisting mineral assemblages vary with fO2 and temperature, with melt being more evolved at higher fO2s, where coexisting mineral assemblages are more plagioclase- and Fe–Ti oxide-rich and amphibole-poor. At fO2 of Ni–NiO +1, typical for many silicic magmas, the samples produce 12–25 wt% granitic–rhyolitic liquid, amounts varying with bulk composition. Medium-to-high K basalts are common in subduction-related magmatic arcs, and near-solidus true granite or rhyolite liquids can form widely, and in geologically significant quantities, by advanced crystallization–differentiation or by low-degree partial remelting of mantle-derived basaltic sources. Previously differentiated or weathered materials may be involved in generating specific felsic magmas, but are not required for such magmas to be voluminous or to have the K-rich granitic compositions typical of the upper continental crust.
TL;DR: In this article, amphibole is used as a filter for water dissolved in mantle-derived arc magmas, and amphibole cumulates may act as a fertile source of intracrustal melts and fluids.
Abstract: Pressure-temperature-time paths followed by arc magmas ascending through the lithosphere dictate the phase assemblage that crystallizes, and hence the compositions of liquid fractionates. Here we use La/Yb and Dy/Yb versus SiO2 relationships from selected volcanoes to show that amphibole is an important mineral during differentiation of arc magma. Production of intermediate and silicic arc magmas occurs as magmas stall and cool in the mid-lower crust, where amphibole is stable. Because amphibole is rarely a phenocryst phase, we term this “cryptic amphibole fractionation.” If this process is as widespread as our investigation suggests, then (1) amphibole cumulates may act as an effective filter for water dissolved in mantle-derived magmas; (2) amphibole cumulates may act as a fertile source of intracrustal melts and fluids; and (3) recycling of amphibole cumulates has the potential to return incompatible trace elements and water to the mantle.
TL;DR: In this paper, a compilation of about one hundred estimates of volumetric rates of magma emplacement and volcanic output that are average rates for durations of igneous activity greater than 300 yrs.
Abstract: This study includes a compilation of about one hundred estimates of volumetric rates of magma emplacement and volcanic output that are average rates for durations of igneous activity greater than 300 yrs. These data indicate that the rate of volcanic output is about 10−1 km3 yr−1 in regions that are the most active magmatically. Factors that correlate with rates of magma emplacement and volcanic output are: magma composition, crustal thickness, tectonic setting, and regional stress. Of the ninety rates of magma emplacement and volcanic output that were studied, the highest for basaltic magmas are greater than the highest for silicic magmas, regardless of the volumes erupted or areal extent of magmatism. Rates of volcanic output for oceanic areas tend to be greater than rates in continental areas, perhaps because of thinner crust, a predominance of basaltic magma, and higher rates of magma generation. Ratios of intrusive to extrusive volumes are typically about 5 to 1 for oceanic localities and 10 to 1 for continental localities. This difference apparently reflects dissimilar rates of magma ascent related to different crustal thicknesses and magma compositions. The total rate of magma emplacement and volcanic output for the Earth, averaged over the last 180 m.y., is between about 26 and 34 km3 yr−1. About 75% of this total is contributed by ocean-ridge magmatism. Oceanic intraplate magmatism contributes about 5%. Igneous activity in subduction zones, about half of which is continental, adds about 20%. Intracontinental magmatism, more than 95% of which is flood and plains basalts, provides less than 5% of the total global rate of magma emplacement and volcanic output.
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