Topic

# Simple polygon

About: Simple polygon is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1646 publications have been published within this topic receiving 31970 citations.

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Book
01 Aug 1981
TL;DR: This chapter discusses Graphics, Image Processing, and Pattern Recognition, and the Reconstruction techniques used in this program, as well as some of the problems faced in implementing this program.
Abstract: 1: Introduction.- 1.1 Graphics, Image Processing, and Pattern Recognition.- 1.2 Forms of Pictorial Data.- 1.2.1 Class 1: Full Gray Scale and Color Pictures.- 1.2.2 Class 2: Bilevel or "Few Color" pictures.- 1.2.3 Class 3: Continuous Curves and Lines.- 1.2.4 Class 4: Points or Polygons.- 1.3 Pictorial Input.- 1.4 Display Devices.- 1.5 Vector Graphics.- 1.6 Raster Graphics.- 1.7 Common Primitive Graphic Instructions.- 1.8 Comparison of Vector and Raster Graphics.- 1.9 Pictorial Editor.- 1.10 Pictorial Transformations.- 1.11 Algorithm Notation.- 1.12 A Few Words on Complexity.- 1.13 Bibliographical Notes.- 1.14 Relevant Literature.- 1.15 Problems.- 2: Digitization of Gray Scale Images.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 A Review of Fourier and other Transforms.- 2.3 Sampling.- 2.3.1 One-dimensional Sampling.- 2.3.2 Two-dimensional Sampling.- 2.4 Aliasing.- 2.5 Quantization.- 2.6 Bibliographical Notes.- 2.7 Relevant Literature.- 2.8 Problems.- Appendix 2.A: Fast Fourier Transform.- 3: Processing of Gray Scale Images.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Histogram and Histogram Equalization.- 3.3 Co-occurrence Matrices.- 3.4 Linear Image Filtering.- 3.5 Nonlinear Image Filtering.- 3.5.1 Directional Filters.- 3.5.2 Two-part Filters.- 3.5.3 Functional Approximation Filters.- 3.6 Bibliographical Notes.- 3.7 Relevant Literature.- 3.8 Problems.- 4: Segmentation.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Thresholding.- 4.3 Edge Detection.- 4.4 Segmentation by Region Growing.- 4.4.1 Segmentation by Average Brightness Level.- 4.4.2 Other Uniformity Criteria.- 4.5 Bibliographical Notes.- 4.6 Relevant Literature.- 4.7 Problems.- 5: Projections.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Introduction to Reconstruction Techniques.- 5.3 A Class of Reconstruction Algorithms.- 5.4 Projections for Shape Analysis.- 5.5 Bibliographical Notes.- 5.6 Relevant Literature.- 5.7 Problems.- Appendix 5.A: An Elementary Reconstruction Program.- 6: Data Structures.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Graph Traversal Algorithms.- 6.3 Paging.- 6.4 Pyramids or Quad Trees.- 6.4.1 Creating a Quad Tree.- 6.4.2 Reconstructing an Image from a Quad Tree.- 6.4.3 Image Compaction with a Quad Tree.- 6.5 Binary Image Trees.- 6.6 Split-and-Merge Algorithms.- 6.7 Line Encodings and the Line Adjacency Graph.- 6.8 Region Encodings and the Region Adjacency Graph.- 6.9 Iconic Representations.- 6.10 Data Structures for Displays.- 6.11 Bibliographical Notes.- 6.12 Relevant Literature.- 6.13 Problems.- Appendix 6.A: Introduction to Graphs.- 7: Bilevel Pictures.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Sampling and Topology.- 7.3 Elements of Discrete Geometry.- 7.4 A Sampling Theorem for Class 2 Pictures.- 7.5 Contour Tracing.- 7.5.1 Tracing of a Single Contour.- 7.5.2 Traversal of All the Contours of a Region.- 7.6 Curves and Lines on a Discrete Grid.- 7.6.1 When a Set of Pixels is not a Curve.- 7.6.2 When a Set of Pixels is a Curve.- 7.7 Multiple Pixels.- 7.8 An Introduction to Shape Analysis.- 7.9 Bibliographical Notes.- 7.10 Relevant Literature.- 7.11 Problems.- 8: Contour Filling.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Edge Filling.- 8.3 Contour Filling by Parity Check.- 8.3.1 Proof of Correctness of Algorithm 8.3.- 8.3.2 Implementation of a Parity Check Algorithm.- 8.4 Contour Filling by Connectivity.- 8.4.1 Recursive Connectivity Filling.- 8.4.2 Nonrecursive Connectivity Filling.- 8.4.3 Procedures used for Connectivity Filling.- 8.4.4 Description of the Main Algorithm.- 8.5 Comparisons and Combinations.- 8.6 Bibliographical Notes.- 8.7 Relevant Literature.- 8.8 Problems.- 9: Thinning Algorithms.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Classical Thinning Algorithms.- 9.3 Asynchronous Thinning Algorithms.- 9.4 Implementation of an Asynchronous Thinning Algorithm.- 9.5 A Quick Thinning Algorithm.- 9.6 Structural Shape Analysis.- 9.7 Transformation of Bilevel Images into Line Drawings.- 9.8 Bibliographical Notes.- 9.9 Relevant Literature.- 9.10 Problems.- 10: Curve Fitting and Curve Displaying.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Polynomial Interpolation.- 10.3 Bezier Polynomials.- 10.4 Computation of Bezier Polynomials.- 10.5 Some Properties of Bezier Polynomials.- 10.6 Circular Arcs.- 10.7 Display of Lines and Curves.- 10.7.1 Display of Curves through Differential Equations.- 10.7.2 Effect of Round-off Errors in Displays.- 10.8 A Point Editor.- 10.8.1 A Data Structure for a Point Editor.- 10.8.2 Input and Output for a Point Editor.- 10.9 Bibliographical Notes.- 10.10 Relevant Literature.- 10.11 Problems.- 11: Curve Fitting with Splines.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Fundamental Definitions.- 11.3 B-Splines.- 11.4 Computation with B-Splines.- 11.5 Interpolating B-Splines.- 11.6 B-Splines in Graphics.- 11.7 Shape Description and B-splines.- 11.8 Bibliographical Notes.- 11.9 Relevant Literature.- 11.10 Problems.- 12: Approximation of Curves.- 12.1 Introduction.- 12.2 Integral Square Error Approximation.- 12.3 Approximation Using B-Splines.- 12.4 Approximation by Splines with Variable Breakpoints.- 12.5 Polygonal Approximations.- 12.5.1 A Suboptimal Line Fitting Algorithm.- 12.5.2 A Simple Polygon Fitting Algorithm.- 12.5.3 Properties of Algorithm 12.2.- 12.6 Applications of Curve Approximation in Graphics.- 12.6.1 Handling of Groups of Points by a Point Editor.- 12.6.2 Finding Some Simple Approximating Curves.- 12.7 Bibliographical Notes.- 12.8 Relevant Literature.- 12.9 Problems.- 13: Surface Fitting and Surface Displaying.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 Some Simple Properties of Surfaces.- 13.3 Singular Points of a Surface.- 13.4 Linear and Bilinear Interpolating Surface Patches.- 13.5 Lofted Surfaces.- 13.6 Coons Surfaces.- 13.7 Guided Surfaces.- 13.7.1 Bezier Surfaces.- 13.7.2 B-Spline Surfaces.- 13.8 The Choice of a Surface Partition.- 13.9 Display of Surfaces and Shading.- 13.10 Bibliographical Notes.- 13.11 Relevant Literature.- 13.12 Problems.- 14: The Mathematics of Two-Dimensional Graphics.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Two-Dimensional Transformations.- 14.3 Homogeneous Coordinates.- 14.3.1 Equation of a Line Defined by Two Points.- 14.3.2 Coordinates of a Point Defined as the Intersection of Two Lines.- 14.3.3 Duality.- 14.4 Line Segment Problems.- 14.4.1 Position of a Point with respect to a Line.- 14.4.2 Intersection of Line Segments.- 14.4.3 Position of a Point with respect to a Polygon.- 14.4.4 Segment Shadow.- 14.5 Bibliographical Notes.- 14.6 Relevant Literature.- 14.7 Problems.- 15: Polygon Clipping.- 15.1 Introduction.- 15.2 Clipping a Line Segment by a Convex Polygon.- 15.3 Clipping a Line Segment by a Regular Rectangle.- 15.4 Clipping an Arbitrary Polygon by a Line.- 15.5 Intersection of Two Polygons.- 15.6 Efficient Polygon Intersection.- 15.7 Bibliographical Notes.- 15.8 Relevant Literature.- 15.9 Problems.- 16: The Mathematics of Three-Dimensional Graphics.- 16.1 Introduction.- 16.2 Homogeneous Coordinates.- 16.2.1 Position of a Point with respect to a Plane.- 16.2.2 Intersection of Triangles.- 16.3 Three-Dimensional Transformations.- 16.3.1 Mathematical Preliminaries.- 16.3.2 Rotation around an Axis through the Origin.- 16.4 Orthogonal Projections.- 16.5 Perspective Projections.- 16.6 Bibliographical Notes.- 16.7 Relevant Literature.- 16.8 Problems.- 17: Creating Three-Dimensional Graphic Displays.- 17.1 Introduction.- 17.2 The Hidden Line and Hidden Surface Problems.- 17.2.1 Surface Shadow.- 17.2.2 Approaches to the Visibility Problem.- 17.2.3 Single Convex Object Visibility.- 17.3 A Quad Tree Visibility Algorithm.- 17.4 A Raster Line Scan Visibility Algorithm.- 17.5 Coherence.- 17.6 Nonlinear Object Descriptions.- 17.7 Making a Natural Looking Display.- 17.8 Bibliographical Notes.- 17.9 Relevant Literature.- 17.10 Problems.- Author Index.- Algorithm Index.

1,395 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article introduces a new compressed representation for complex triangulated models and simple, yet efficient, compression and decompression algorithms, and improves on Michael Deering's pioneering results by exploiting the geometric coherence of several ancestors in the vertex spanning tree.
Abstract: The abundance and importance of complex 3-D data bases in major industry segments, the affordability of interactive 3-D rendering for office and consumer use, and the exploitation of the Internet to distribute and share 3-D data have intensified the need for an effective 3-D geometric compression technique that would significantly reduce the time required to transmit 3-D models over digital communication channels, and the amount of memory or disk space required to store the models. Because the prevalent representation of 3-D models for graphics purposes is polyhedral and because polyhedral models are in general triangulated for rendering, this article introduces a new compressed representation for complex triangulated models and simple, yet efficient, compression and decompression algorithms. In this scheme, vertex positions are quantized within the desired accuracy, a vertex spanning tree is used to predict the position of each vertex from 2,3, or 4 of its ancestors in the tree, and the correction vectors are entropy encoded. Properties, such as normals, colors, and texture coordinates, are compressed in a similar manner. The connectivity is encoded with no loss of information to an average of less than two bits per triangle. The vertex spanning tree and a small set of jump edges are used to split the model into a simple polygon. A triangle spanning tree and a sequence of marching bits are used to encode the triangulation of the polygon. Our approach improves on Michael Deering's pioneering results by exploiting the geometric coherence of several ancestors in the vertex spanning tree, preserving the connectivity with no loss of information, avoiding vertex repetitions, and using about three fewer bits for the connectivity. However, since decompression requires random access to all vertices, this method must be modified for hardware rendering with limited onboard memory. Finally, we demonstrate implementation results for a variety of VRML models with up to two orders of magnitude compression.

738 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: A deterministic algorithm for triangulating a simple polygon in linear time is given, using the polygon-cutting theorem and the planar separator theorem, whose role is essential in the discovery of new diagonals.
Abstract: We give a deterministic algorithm for triangulating a simple polygon in linear time. The basic strategy is to build a coarse approximation of a triangulation in a bottom-up phase and then use the information computed along the way to refine the triangulation in a top-down phase. The main tools used are the polygon-cutting theorem, which provides us with a balancing scheme, and the planar separator theorem, whose role is essential in the discovery of new diagonals. Only elementary data structures are required by the algorithm. In particular, no dynamic search trees, of our algorithm.

632 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a deterministic algorithm for triangulating a simple polygon in linear time is presented. But the main tools used are the polygon-cutting theorem, which provides us with a balancing scheme, and the planar separator theorem, whose role is essential in the discovery of new diagonals.
Abstract: We give a deterministic algorithm for triangulating a simple polygon in linear time. The basic strategy is to build a coarse approximation of a triangulation in a bottom-up phase and then use the information computed along the way to refine the triangulation in a top-down phase. The main tools used are the polygon-cutting theorem, which provides us with a balancing scheme, and the planar separator theorem, whose role is essential in the discovery of new diagonals. Only elementary data structures are required by the algorithm. In particular, no dynamic search trees, of our algorithm.

592 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A 0(n log n) algorithm for computing the medial axis of a planar shape represented by an n-edge simple polygon is presented, which is an improvement over most previously known results interms of both efficiency and exactness.
Abstract: The medial axis transformation is a means first proposed by Blum to describe a shape. In this paper we present a 0(n log n) algorithm for computing the medial axis of a planar shape represented by an n-edge simple polygon. The algorithm is an improvement over most previously known results interms of both efficiency and exactness and has been implemented in Fortran. Some computer-plotted output of the program are also shown in the paper.

515 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202311
202231
202129
202035
201930
201836