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Single crystal

About: Single crystal is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 59617 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 870828 citation(s). more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/IC401215X
Abstract: A broad organic–inorganic series of hybrid metal iodide perovskites with the general formulation AMI3, where A is the methylammonium (CH3NH3+) or formamidinium (HC(NH2)2+) cation and M is Sn (1 and 2) or Pb (3 and 4) are reported. The compounds have been prepared through a variety of synthetic approaches, and the nature of the resulting materials is discussed in terms of their thermal stability and optical and electronic properties. We find that the chemical and physical properties of these materials strongly depend on the preparation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of 1–4 classifies the compounds in the perovskite structural family. Structural phase transitions were observed and investigated by temperature-dependent single crystal X-ray diffraction in the 100–400 K range. The charge transport properties of the materials are discussed in conjunction with diffuse reflectance studies in the mid-IR region that display characteristic absorption features. Temperature-dependent studies show a ... more

Topics: Formamidinium (59%), Perovskite (structure) (58%), Methylammonium lead halide (56%) more

3,706 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1107/S0021889803021800
Abstract: The determination of small-molecule structures from single-crystal X-ray data is being carried out by researchers with little or no crys- tallographic training. At the same time, completely automatic crystal structure analysis can still only be achieved under very favourable conditions. Many of the problems that cause automatic systems to fail could be resolved with suitable chemical insight, and until this is built- in, programs continue to need human guidance. CRYSTALS version 12 contains a modern crystallographic human-interface design, and novel strategies incorporating chemical knowledge and sensible crystallographic guidance into crystal structure analysis software. more

Topics: Single crystal (53%)

2,469 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NMAT1134
01 Jun 2004-Nature Materials
Abstract: The demand for compact ultraviolet laser devices is increasing, as they are essential in applications such as optical storage, photocatalysis, sterilization, ophthalmic surgery and nanosurgery. Many researchers are devoting considerable effort to finding materials with larger bandgaps than that of GaN. Here we show that hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a promising material for such laser devices because it has a direct bandgap in the ultraviolet region. We obtained a pure hBN single crystal under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, which shows a dominant luminescence peak and a series of s-like exciton absorption bands around 215 nm, proving it to be a direct-bandgap material. Evidence for room-temperature ultraviolet lasing at 215 nm by accelerated electron excitation is provided by the enhancement and narrowing of the longitudinal mode, threshold behaviour of the excitation current dependence of the emission intensity, and a far-field pattern of the transverse mode. more

Topics: Lasing threshold (60%), Electron excitation (53%), Ultraviolet (51%) more

2,230 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/0022-3697(63)90067-2
Abstract: The Reuss-Voigt approximations are well known methods whereby the isotropic polycrystalline elastic constants can be calculated from the single crystal elastic constants. It is shown here that the Reuss and the Voigt approximations can be used to estimate, accurately, the mean sound velocity of a crystal. Using this method, the Debye Temperature, which is proportioned to the mean sound velocity, can be determined without recourse to the published tables or high speed computers. This approximation is valid for all crystal classes. more

Topics: Debye model (56%), Crystal (53%), Single crystal (52%) more

2,072 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PROGSURF.2005.09.002
Matthias Batzill1, Ulrike Diebold1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The study of tin oxide is motivated by its applications as a solid state gas sensor material, oxidation catalyst, and transparent conductor. This review describes the physical and chemical properties that make tin oxide a suitable material for these purposes. The emphasis is on surface science studies of single crystal surfaces, but selected studies on powder and polycrystalline films are also incorporated in order to provide connecting points between surface science studies with the broader field of materials science of tin oxide. The key for understanding many aspects of SnO 2 surface properties is the dual valency of Sn. The dual valency facilitates a reversible transformation of the surface composition from stoichiometric surfaces with Sn 4+ surface cations into a reduced surface with Sn 2+ surface cations depending on the oxygen chemical potential of the system. Reduction of the surface modifies the surface electronic structure by formation of Sn 5s derived surface states that lie deep within the band gap and also cause a lowering of the work function. The gas sensing mechanism appears, however, only to be indirectly influenced by the surface composition of SnO 2 . Critical for triggering a gas response are not the lattice oxygen concentration but chemisorbed (or ionosorbed) oxygen and other molecules with a net electric charge. Band bending induced by charged molecules cause the increase or decrease in surface conductivity responsible for the gas response signal. In most applications tin oxide is modified by additives to either increase the charge carrier concentration by donor atoms, or to increase the gas sensitivity or the catalytic activity by metal additives. Some of the basic concepts by which additives modify the gas sensing and catalytic properties of SnO 2 are discussed and the few surface science studies of doped SnO 2 are reviewed. Epitaxial SnO 2 films may facilitate the surface science studies of doped films in the future. To this end film growth on titania, alumina, and Pt(1 1 1) is reviewed. Thin films on alumina also make promising test systems for probing gas sensing behavior. Molecular adsorption and reaction studies on SnO 2 surfaces have been hampered by the challenges of preparing well-characterized surfaces. Nevertheless some experimental and theoretical studies have been performed and are reviewed. Of particular interest in these studies was the influence of the surface composition on its chemical properties. Finally, the variety of recently synthesized tin oxide nanoscopic materials is summarized. more

Topics: Tin oxide (61%), Surface states (58%), Work function (55%) more

2,039 Citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

P. Ramasamy

251 papers, 3.9K citations

Akira Yoshikawa

122 papers, 2.6K citations

G. Vinitha

94 papers, 578 citations

Tsuguo Fukuda

75 papers, 1.4K citations

S. Kalainathan

75 papers, 1K citations

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