About: Single-nucleotide polymorphism is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 40159 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1197524 citations. The topic is also known as: single nucleotide variation & single nucleotide polymorphism.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This study has demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in theBritish population is generally modest.
Abstract: There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association ( GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study ( using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined similar to 2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of similar to 3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P < 5 X 10(-7): 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn's disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals ( including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10(-5) and 5 X 10(-7)) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics research.
TL;DR: The Phase II HapMap is described, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25–35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed, and increased differentiation at non-synonymous, compared to synonymous, SNPs is demonstrated.
Abstract: We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between 0.9 and 0.96 depending on population. We demonstrate that the current generation of commercial genome-wide genotyping products captures common Phase II SNPs with an average maximum r2 of up to 0.8 in African and up to 0.95 in non-African populations, and that potential gains in power in association studies can be obtained through imputation. These data also reveal novel aspects of the structure of linkage disequilibrium. We show that 10-30% of pairs of individuals within a population share at least one region of extended genetic identity arising from recent ancestry and that up to 1% of all common variants are untaggable, primarily because they lie within recombination hotspots. We show that recombination rates vary systematically around genes and between genes of different function. Finally, we demonstrate increased differentiation at non-synonymous, compared to synonymous, SNPs, resulting from systematic differences in the strength or efficacy of natural selection between populations.
TL;DR: An online catalog of SNP-trait associations from published genome-wide association studies for use in investigating genomic characteristics of trait/disease-associated SNPs (TASs) is developed, well-suited to guide future investigations of the role of common variants in complex disease etiology.
Abstract: We have developed an online catalog of SNP-trait associations from published genome-wide association studies for use in investigating genomic characteristics of trait/disease-associated SNPs (TASs). Reported TASs were common [median risk allele frequency 36%, interquartile range (IQR) 21%−53%] and were associated with modest effect sizes [median odds ratio (OR) 1.33, IQR 1.20–1.61]. Among 20 genomic annotation sets, reported TASs were significantly overrepresented only in nonsynonymous sites [OR = 3.9 (2.2−7.0), p = 3.5 × 10−7] and 5kb-promoter regions [OR = 2.3 (1.5−3.6), p = 3 × 10−4] compared to SNPs randomly selected from genotyping arrays. Although 88% of TASs were intronic (45%) or intergenic (43%), TASs were not overrepresented in introns and were significantly depleted in intergenic regions [OR = 0.44 (0.34−0.58), p = 2.0 × 10−9]. Only slightly more TASs than expected by chance were predicted to be in regions under positive selection [OR = 1.3 (0.8−2.1), p = 0.2]. This new online resource, together with bioinformatic predictions of the underlying functionality at trait/disease-associated loci, is well-suited to guide future investigations of the role of common variants in complex disease etiology.
TL;DR: In addition to the APOE locus (encoding apolipoprotein E), 19 loci reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8) in the combined stage 1 and stage 2 analysis, of which 11 are newly associated with Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract: Eleven susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) were identified by previous studies; however, a large portion of the genetic risk for this disease remains unexplained. We conducted a large, two-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In stage 1, we used genotyped and imputed data (7,055,881 SNPs) to perform meta-analysis on 4 previously published GWAS data sets consisting of 17,008 Alzheimer's disease cases and 37,154 controls. In stage 2, 11,632 SNPs were genotyped and tested for association in an independent set of 8,572 Alzheimer's disease cases and 11,312 controls. In addition to the APOE locus (encoding apolipoprotein E), 19 loci reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8) in the combined stage 1 and stage 2 analysis, of which 11 are newly associated with Alzheimer's disease.
Cardiff University1, Medical Research Council2, University of Bristol3, National Institute for Health Research4, King's College5, Trinity College, Dublin6, University of Cambridge7, University of Nottingham8, Queen's University Belfast9, University of Southampton10, University of Manchester11, John Radcliffe Hospital12, UCL Institute of Neurology13, University of Bonn14, University of Hamburg15, Charité16, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg17, University of Duisburg-Essen18, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich19, Heidelberg University20, University College Dublin21, University of Freiburg22, Washington University in St. Louis23, Brigham Young University24, University of Antwerp25, University College London26, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute27, King's College London28, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki29, National Institutes of Health30, Mayo Clinic31
TL;DR: A two-stage genome-wide association study of Alzheimer's disease involving over 16,000 individuals, the most powerful AD GWAS to date, produced compelling evidence for association with Alzheimer's Disease in the combined dataset.
Abstract: We undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involving over 16,000 individuals, the most powerful AD GWAS to date. In stage 1 (3,941 cases and 7,848 controls), we replicated the established association with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus (most significant SNP, rs2075650, P = 1.8 10-157) and observed genome-wide significant association with SNPs at two loci not previously associated with the disease: at the CLU (also known as APOJ) gene (rs11136000, P = 1.4 10-9) and 5' to the PICALM gene (rs3851179, P = 1.9 10-8). These associations were replicated in stage 2 (2,023 cases and 2,340 controls), producing compelling evidence for association with Alzheimer's disease in the combined dataset (rs11136000, P = 8.5 10-10, odds ratio = 0.86; rs3851179, P = 1.3 10-9, odds ratio = 0.86).
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