Topic

# Singular perturbation

About: Singular perturbation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7865 publications have been published within this topic receiving 152143 citations.

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01 Oct 1985

TL;DR: This paper presents the Multi-Grid Method of the Second Kind, a method for solving Singular Perturbation Problems and Eigenvalue Problems and Singular Equations of the Two-Grid Iteration.

Abstract: 1. Preliminaries.- 2. Introductory Model Problem.- 3. General Two-Grid Method.- 4. General Multi-Grid Iteration.- 5. Nested Iteration Technique.- 6. Convergence of the Two-Grid Iteration.- 7. Convergence of the Multi-Grid Iteration.- 8. Fourier Analysis.- 9. Nonlinear Multi-Grid Methods.- 10. Singular Perturbation Problems.- 11. Elliptic Systems.- 12. Eigenvalue Problems and Singular Equations.- 13. Continuation Techniques.- 14. Extrapolation and Defect Correction Techniques.- 15. Local Techniques.- 16. The Multi-Grid Method of the Second Kind.

2,545 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a survey of recent developments in asymptotic techniques, which are valid not only for weakly nonlinear equations, but also for strongly ones, is presented.

Abstract: This paper features a survey of some recent developments in asymptotic techniques, which are valid not only for weakly nonlinear equations, but also for strongly ones. Further, the obtained approximate analytical solutions are valid for the whole solution domain. The limitations of traditional perturbation methods are illustrated, various modied perturbation techniques are proposed, and some mathematical tools such as variational theory, homotopy technology, and iteration technique are introduced to overcome the shortcomings. In this paper the following categories of asymptotic methods are emphasized: (1) variational approaches, (2) parameter-expanding methods, (3) parameterized perturbation method, (4) homotopy perturbation method (5) iteration perturbation method, and ancient Chinese methods. The emphasis of this article is put mainly on the developments in this eld in China so the references, therefore, are not exhaustive.

2,135 citations

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TL;DR: The physical interpretation of perturbations of homogeneous, isotropic cosmological models in the early Universe, when the perturbation is larger than the particle horizon, is clarified by defining a complete set of gauge-invariant variables as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: The physical interpretation of perturbations of homogeneous, isotropic cosmological models in the early Universe, when the perturbation is larger than the particle horizon, is clarified by defining a complete set of gauge-invariant variables. The linearized perturbation equations written in these variables are simpler than the usual versions, and easily accommodate an arbitrary background equation of state, entropy perturbations, and anisotropic pressure perturbations. Particular attention is paid to how a scalar (density) perturbation might be generated by stress perturbations at very early times, when the non-gauge-invariant perturbation in the density itself is ill-defined. The amplitude of the fractional energy density perturbation at the particle horizon cannot be larger, in order of magnitude, than the maximum ratio of the stress perturbation to the background energy density at any earlier time, unless the perturbation is inherent in the initial singularity.

2,114 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a coupling method of a homotopy technique and a perturbation technique is proposed to solve non-linear problems, which does not require a small parameter in the equation.

Abstract: In this paper, a coupling method of a homotopy technique and a perturbation technique is proposed to solve non-linear problems. In contrast to the traditional perturbation methods, the proposed method does not require a small parameter in the equation. In this method, according to the homotopy technique, a homotopy with an imbedding parameter p∈[0, 1] is constructed, and the imbedding parameter is considered as a “small parameter”. So the proposed method can take full advantage of the traditional perturbation methods. Some examples are given. The results reveal that the new method is very effective and simple.

1,784 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the central idea of diffusive shock acceleration is presented from microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints; applied to reactionless test particles in a steady plane shock, the mechanism is shown to produce a power law spectrum in momentum with a slope which, to lowest order in the ratio of plasma to particle speed, depends only on the compression in the shock.

Abstract: The central idea of diffusive shock acceleration is presented from microscopic and macroscopic viewpoints; applied to reactionless test particles in a steady plane shock the mechanism is shown to produce a power law spectrum in momentum with a slope which, to lowest order in the ratio of plasma to particle speed, depends only on the compression in the shock. The associated time scale is found (also by a macroscopic and a microscopic method) and the problems of spherical shocks, as exemplified by a point explosion and a stellar-wind terminator, are treated by singular perturbation theory. The effect of including the particle reaction is then studied. It is shown that if the scattering is due to resonant waves these can rapidly grow with unknown consequences. The possible steady modified shock structures are classified and generalised Rankine-Hugoniot conditions found. Modifications of the spectrum are discussed on the basis of an exact, if rather artificial, solution, a high-energy asymptotic expansion and a perturbation expansion due to Blandford. It is pointed out that no steady solution can exist for very strong shocks; the possible time dependence is briefly discussed.

1,616 citations