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About: Sintering is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 76081 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 892124 citation(s). The topic is also known as: frittage.

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01 Dec 1960
Abstract: INTRODUCTION. Ceramic Processes and Products. CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC SOLIDS. Structure of Crystals. Structure of Glasses. Structural Imperfections. Surfaces, Interfaces, and Grain Boundaries. Atom Mobility. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN CERAMICS. Ceramic Phase Equilibrium Diagrams. Phase Transformation, Glass Formation and Glass--Ceramics. Reactions with and between Solids. Grain Growth. Sintering and Vitrification. Microstructure of Ceramics. PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS. Thermal Properties. Optical Properties. Plastic Deformation, Viscous Flow and Creep. Elasticity, Anelasticity and Strength. Thermal and Compositional Stresses. Electrical Conductivity. Dielectric Properties. Magnetic Properties.

6,594 citations

01 Jan 1996
Abstract: Sintering Measurement Techniques. Solid-State Sintering Fundamentals. Microstructure and Processing Relations in Solid-State Sintering. Solid-State Sintering of Mixed Powders. Liquid-Phase Sintering. Pressure-Assisted Sintering. Novel Sintering Techniques. Sintering Atmospheres. Sintering Practice. Future Directions. Appendix. Index.

2,227 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper reviews the crystal chemistry, synthesis, densification, microstructure, mechanical properties, and oxidation behavior of zirconium diboride (ZrB2) and hafnium diboride (HfB2) ceramics. The refractory diborides exhibit partial or complete solid solution with other transition metal diborides, which allows compositional tailoring of properties such as thermal expansion coefficient and hardness. Carbothermal reduction is the typical synthesis route, but reactive processes, solution methods, and pre-ceramic polymers can also be used. Typically, diborides are densified by hot pressing, but recently solid state and liquid phase sintering routes have been developed. Fine-grained ZrB2 and HfB2 have strengths of a few hundred MPa, which can increase to over 1 GPa with the addition of SiC. Pure diborides exhibit parabolic oxidation kinetics at temperatures below 1100°C, but B2O3 volatility leads to rapid, linear oxidation kinetics above that temperature. The addition of silica scale formers such as SiC or MoSi2 improves the oxidation behavior above 1100°C. Based on their unique combination of properties, ZrB2 and HfB2 ceramics are candidates for use in the extreme environments associated with hypersonic flight, atmospheric re-entry, and rocket propulsion.

1,473 citations

17 Aug 1995
Abstract: Ceramic fabrication processes - an introductory overview synthesis of powders powder characterization science of colloidal processing sol-gel processing powder consolidation and forming of ceramics sintering of ceramics - fundamentals theory of viscous sintering grain growth and microstructural control liquid-phase sintering problems of sintering densification process variables and densification practice.

1,328 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Mar 2000-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that fully dense cubic Y2O3 with a grain size of 60 nm can be prepared by a simple two-step sintering method, at temperatures of about 1,000 °C without applied pressure, and the suppression of the final-stage grain growth is achieved by exploiting the difference in kinetics between grain- boundary diffusion and grain-boundary migration.
Abstract: Sintering is the process whereby interparticle pores in a granular material are eliminated by atomic diffusion driven by capillary forces. It is the preferred manufacturing method for industrial ceramics. The observation of Burke and Coble that certain crystalline granular solids could gain full density and translucency by solid-state sintering was an important milestone for modern technical ceramics. But these final-stage sintering processes are always accompanied by rapid grain growth, because the capillary driving forces for sintering (involving surfaces) and grain growth (involving grain boundaries) are comparable in magnitude, both being proportional to the reciprocal grain size. This has greatly hampered efforts to produce dense materials with nanometre-scale structure (grain size less than 100 nm), leading many researchers to resort to the 'brute force' approach of high-pressure consolidation at elevated temperatures. Here we show that fully dense cubic Y2O3 (melting point, 2,439 degrees C) with a grain size of 60 nm can be prepared by a simple two-step sintering method, at temperatures of about 1,000 degrees C without applied pressure. The suppression of the final-stage grain growth is achieved by exploiting the difference in kinetics between grain-boundary diffusion and grain-boundary migration. Such a process should facilitate the cost-effective preparation of other nanocrystalline materials for practical applications.

1,213 citations

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