About: Situation awareness is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7380 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 108695 citation(s). The topic is also known as: SA & situational awareness.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Mar 1995-Human Factors
TL;DR: A theoretical model of situation awareness based on its role in dynamic human decision making in a variety of domains is presented and design implications for enhancing operator situation awareness and future directions for situation awareness research are explored.
Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical model of situation awareness based on its role in dynamic human decision making in a variety of domains. Situation awareness is presented as a predominant concern in system operation, based on a descriptive view of decision making. The relationship between situation awareness and numerous individual and environmental factors is explored. Among these factors, attention and working memory are presented as critical factors limiting operators from acquiring and interpreting information from the environment to form situation awareness, and mental models and goal-directed behavior are hypothesized as important mechanisms for overcoming these limits. The impact of design features, workload, stress, system complexity, and automation on operator situation awareness is addressed, and a taxonomy of errors in situation awareness is introduced, based on the model presented. The model is used to generate design implications for enhancing operator situation awareness and future directio...
01 Mar 1995-Human Factors
TL;DR: Two studies are presented that investigate questions of validity and intrusiveness regarding a query-based technique that requires that a simulation of the operational tasks be momentarily interrupted in order to query operators on their situation awareness.
Abstract: Methodologies for the empirical measurement of situation awareness are reviewed, including a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the potential limitations of the measures from a theoretical and practical viewpoint. Two studies are presented that investigate questions of validity and intrusiveness regarding a query-based technique. This technique requires that a simulation of the operational tasks be momentarily interrupted in order to query operators on their situation awareness. The results of the two studies indicate that the query technique is not intrusive on normal subject behavior during the trial and does not suffer from limitations of human memory, which provides an indication of empirical validity. The results of other validity studies regarding the technique are discussed along with recommendations for its use in measuring situation awareness in varied settings.
01 Oct 1988
TL;DR: A discussion of the SA construct, important considerations facing designers of aircraft systems, and current research in the area of SA measurement are presented.
Abstract: Situation awareness (SA) is an important component of pilot/system performance in all types of aircraft. It is the role of the human factors engineer to develop aircraft cockpits which will enhance SA. Research in the area of situation awareness is is vitally needed if system designers are to meet the challenge of providing cockpits which enhance SA. This paper presents a discussion of the SA construct, important considerations facing designers of aircraft systems, and current research in the area of SA measurement.
01 Jul 2000
TL;DR: The enhancement of operator situation awareness (SA) has become a major designgoal for those developing operator interfaces, automation concepts and training programs in a wide variety of fields, including aircraft, air traffic control, power plants, and advanced manufacturing systems.
Abstract: The enhancement of operator situation awareness (SA) has become a major designgoal for those developing operator interfaces, automation concepts and training programs ina wide variety of fields, including aircraft, air traffic control, power plants, and advancedmanufacturing systems. This dramatic growth in interest in SA, beginning in the mid-1980’s and accelerating through the 1990’s, was spurred on by many factors, chief amongthem the challenges of a new class of technology. One can easily see that situation awareness has always been needed in order forpeople to perform tasks effectively. Prehistoric man undoubtedly needed to be aware ofmany cues in his environment in order to successfully hunt and keep from being hunted.For many years, having good situation awareness was largely a matter of training andexperience — learning the important cues to watch for and what they meant. With the advent of the machine age, our emphasis shifted to creating a new class oftools to help people perform tasks, largely those physical in nature. The computer age andnow the information age have followed rapidly on the heals of basic mechanization. Thetools provided are no longer simple; they are amazingly complex, focused on not justphysical tasks, but elaborate perceptual and cognitive tasks as well. The pilot of today’saircraft, the air traffic controller, the power plant operator, the anesthesiologist: all mustperceive and comprehend a dazzling array of data which is often changing very rapidly. Ihave taken to calling this challenge the information gap (Figure 1).Today’s systems are capable of producing a huge amount of data, both on the statusof their own components, and on the status of the external environment. Due toachievements in various types of datalink and internet technologies, systems can alsoprovide data on almost anything anywhere in the world. The problem with today’s systemsis not a lack of information, but finding what is needed when it is needed.Unfortunately, in the face of this torrent of data, many operators may be even lessinformed than ever before. This is because there is a huge gap between the tons of databeing produced and disseminated and people’s ability to find the bits that are needed andprocess them together with the other bits to arrive at the actual information that is requiredfor their decisions. This information must be integrated and interpreted correctly as well; afrequently tricky task. This problem is real and ongoing, whether the job is in the cockpitor behind a desk. It is becoming widely recognized that more data does not equal moreinformation. Issues of automation and “intelligent systems” have frequently onlyexacerbated the problem, rather than aided it (Endsley & Kiris, 1995; Sarter & Woods,1995).The criteria for what we are seeking from system designs have correspondinglychanged. In addition to designing systems that provide the operator with the neededinformation and capabilities, we must also insure that it is provided in a way that is useablecognitively as well as physically. We want to know how well the system design supportsthe operator’s ability to get the needed information under dynamic operational constraints.(i.e. How well does it bridge the information gap?) This design objective and measure ofmerit has been termed situation awareness.
20 Mar 2009
TL;DR: Theoretical underpinnings of Situation Awareness: A Critical Review as discussed by the authors is a critical review of the state of situation awareness in air traffic control and major aircraft accidents in the last decade.
Abstract: Contents: Preface Part I: Introduction and Overview MR Endsley, Theoretical Underpinnings of Situation Awareness: A Critical Review RW Pew, The State of Situation Awareness Measurement Part II: Measurement Approaches G Klein, Analysis of Situation Awareness From Critical Incident Reports MD Rodgers, RH Mogford, B Strauch, Post Hoc Assessment of Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control Incidents and Major Aircraft Accidents DG Jones, Subjective Measures of Situation Awareness HH Bell, DR Lyon, Using Observer Ratings to Assess Situation Awareness MR Endsley, Direct Measurement of Situation Awareness: Validity and Use of SAGAT GF Wilson, Strategies for Psychophysiological Assessment of Situation Awareness AR Pritchett, RJ Hansman, Use of Testable Responses for Performance-Based Measurement of Situation Awareness CD Wickens, The Trade-Off of Design for Routine and Unexpected Performance: Implications of Situation Awareness MA Vidulich, Testing the Sensitivity of Situation Awareness Metrics in Interface Evaluations Part III: Special Topics in Situation Awareness LJ Gugerty, WC Tirre, Individual Differences in Situation Awareness CA Bolstad, TM Hess, Situation Awareness and Aging W Shebilske, BP Goettl, DJ Garland, Situation Awareness, Automaticity, and Training C Prince, E Salas, Team Situation Awareness, Errors, and Crew Resource Management: Research Integration for Training Guidance MR Endsley, MM Robertson, Training for Situation Awareness in Individuals and Teams
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