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# Skin friction line

About: Skin friction line is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 517 publications have been published within this topic receiving 10937 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a theory of friction is proposed that establishes a common basis for static and sliding friction, and experimental observations establish the transition from stable sliding to stick-slip to be a function of normal stress, stiffness and surface finish.

Abstract: Time-dependent increase of static friction is characteristic of rock friction undera variety of experimental circumstances. Data presented here show an analogous velocity-dependent effect. A theor of friction is proposed that establishes a common basis for static and sliding friction. Creep at points of contact causes increases in friction that are proportional to the logarithm of the time that the population of points of contact exist. For static friction that time is the time of stationary contact. For sliding friction the time of contact is determined by the critical displacement required to change the population of contacts and the slip velocity. An analysis of a one-dimensional spring and slider system shows that experimental observations establishing the transition from stable sliding to stick-slip to be a function of normal stress, stiffness and surface finish are a consequence of time-dependent friction.

1,111 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, skin friction and mean-velocity profiles have been made in fully developed flows in pipes and channels in the Reynolds number range 1000 < Re < 10000, and observations of hot-wire signals indicate rather remarkable differences between two-dimensional and axially symmetric flows and also make it difficult to give a precise definition of the term "fully developed turbulent flow".

Abstract: Measurements of skin friction and mean-velocity profiles have been made in fully developed flows in pipes and channels in the Reynolds number range 1000 < Re < 10000 These measurements, and observations of hot-wire signals, indicate rather remarkable differences between two-dimensional and axially symmetric flows and also make it difficult to give a precise definition of the term ‘fully developed turbulent flow’

425 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a simple relation is obtained between the film thickness variation and the skin friction distribution, and the results confirm the theory and show that the method gives reasonably accurate measurements of skin friction distributions in low speed flows.

Abstract: An oil film on a solid surface moves under the action of gravity or of the pressure gradient and skin friction resulting from the flow of air over the oil surface. Such oil flows are studied experimentally and theoretically. If the film is thin enough, the dominant force is the skin friction, and a simple relation is obtained between the film thickness variation and the skin friction distribution. The other forces give a perturbation which may be estimated and which decreases with time. The appropriate film thickness is of the order of 10 mu m and so is conveniently measured by interferometry. Experimental results confirm the theory and show that the method gives reasonably accurate measurements of skin friction distribution in low speed flows.

246 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a weighting function model of unsteady skin friction in smooth-walled, one-dimensional ducts is derived using an idealized form of the radial viscosity distribution.

Abstract: A weighting function model of unsteady skin friction in smooth-walled, one-dimensional ducts is derived using an idealized form of the radial viscosity distribution. The model is an enhancement of earlier work by the authors in which additional simplifying assumptions were made. Important improvements include (1) replacing the assumption of uniform (solid) behaviour in an extensive core region by an assumption of uniform turbulent viscosity and (2) relating the wall shear stress to the mean flow velocity instead of to the maximum velocity. The resulting model can be used directly in numerical analyses of transient flows in pipes. It can also be used to deduce numerical values of an empirical coefficient in a popular alternative model of skin friction in which the unsteady contribution is assumed to be proportional to the instantaneous mean acceleration.

226 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a flow with zero skin friction boundary layer and linear head was found to be linear at the wall (i.e. u ∞ y ½), as predicted theoretically in the previous paper (Stratford 1959).

Abstract: A flow has been produced having effectively zero skin friction throughout its region of pressure rise, which extended for a distance of 3 ft. No fundamental difficulty was encountered in establishing the flow and it had, moreover, a good margin of stability. The dynamic head in the zero skin friction boundary layer was found to be linear at the wall (i.e. u ∞ y½), as predicted theoretically in the previous paper (Stratford 1959).The flow appears to achieve any specified pressure rise in the shortest possible distance and with probably the least possible dissipation of energy for a given initial boundary layer. Thus an aerofoil which could utilize it immediately after transition from laminar flow would be expected to have a very low drag. A design pressure distribution (besides having the usual safety margin against stall) should have a slightly more gradual start to the pressure rise than in the present experiment, as small errors close to the discontinuity can cause difficulty.

225 citations