About: Slab is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 31617 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 318693 citation(s).
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TL;DR: In this paper, the trace-element geochemical properties of the adakites (termed "adakites") of modern island and continental arcs are shown to be consistent with a derivation by partial melting of the subducted slab, and in particular that subducting lithosphere younger than 25 Myr seems to be required for slab melting to occur.
Abstract: MOST volcanic rocks in modern island and continental arcs are probably derived from melting of the mantle wedge, induced by hydrous fluids released during dehydration reactions in the subducted lithosphere1. Arc tholeiitic and calc-alkaline basaltic magmas are produced by partial melting of the mantle, and then evolve by crystal fractionation (with or without assimilation and magma mixing) to more silicic magmas2—basalt, andesite, dacite and rhyolite suites. Although most arc magmas are generated by these petrogenetic processes, rocks with the geochemical characteristics of melts derived directly from the subducted lithosphere are present in some modern arcs where relatively young and hot lithosphere is being subducted. These andesites, dacites and sodic rhyolites (dacites seem to be the most common products) or their intrusive equivalents (tonalites and trondhjemites) are usually not associated with parental basaltic magmas3. Here we show that the trace-element geochemistry of these magmas (termed 'adakites') is consistent with a derivation by partial melting of the subducted slab, and in particular that subducting lithosphere younger than 25 Myr seems to be required for slab melting to occur.
TL;DR: In this article, a plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic (Ordovician to Cretaceous) integrating dynamic plate boundaries, plate buoyancy, ocean spreading rates and major Tectonic and magmatic events was developed.
Abstract: We developed a plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic (Ordovician to Cretaceous) integrating dynamic plate boundaries, plate buoyancy, ocean spreading rates and major tectonic and magmatic events. Plates were constructed through time by adding/removing oceanic material, symbolized by synthetic isochrons, to major continents and terranes. Driving forces like slab pull and slab buoyancy were used to constrain the evolution of paleo-oceanic domains. This approach offers good control of sea-floor spreading and plate kinematics. This new method represents a distinct departure from classical continental drift reconstructions, which are not constrained, due to the lack of plate boundaries. This model allows a more comprehensive analysis of the development of the Tethyan realm in space and time. In particular, the relationship between the Variscan and the Cimmerian cycles in the Mediterranean^Alpine realm is clearly illustrated by numerous maps. For the Alpine cycle, the relationship between the Alpides senso stricto and the Tethysides is also explicable in terms of plate tectonic development of the Alpine Tethys^Atlantic domain versus the NeoTethys domain. fl 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.
TL;DR: In this article, phase diagrams of hydrous mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalts to 330 km depth and hydrous peridotites to 250 km depth are compiled for conditions characteristic for subduction zones.
Abstract: Phase diagrams of hydrous mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalts to 330 km depth and of hydrous peridotites to 250 km depth are compiled for conditions characteristic for subduction zones A synthesis of our experimentally determined phase relations of chlorite, lawsonite, epidote-zoisite, amphibole, paragonite, chloritoid, talc, and phengite in basalts and of phase relations from the literature of serpentine, talc, chlorite, amphibole, and phase A in ultramafics permits calculation of H2O contents in hydrous phase assemblages that occur in natural compositions This yields the information necessary to calculate water budgets for descending slabs Starting from low-grade blueschist conditions (10‐20 km depth) with H2O contents between 5 and 6 wt% for hydrated oceanic crust, complete dehydration is achieved between 70 and >300 km depth as a function of individual slab geotherms Hydrous phases which decompose at depth below volcanic arcs are lawsonite, zoisite, chloritoid, and talc ( phengite) in mafic compositions and chlorite and serpentine in peridotite Approximately 15‐35% of the initially subducted H2O are released below volcanic arcs The contribution of amphibole dehydration to the water budget is small (5‐20%) and occurs at relatively shallow depth (65‐90 km) In any predicted thermal structure, dehydration is a combination of a stepwise and a continuous process through many different reactions which occur simultaneously in the different portions of the descending slab Such a dehydration characteristic is incompatible with ‘single phase dehydration models’ which focus fluid flow through a unique major dehydration event in order to explain volcanic fronts As a consequence of continuously progressing dehydration, water ascending from the slab will be generally available to depth of ca 150‐200 km The fluid rising from the subducting lithosphere will cause partial melting in the hot portion of the mantle wedge We propose that the volcanic front simply forms above the mantle wedge isotherm where the extent of melting is sufficient to allow for the mechanical extraction of parental arc magmas Thermal models show that such an isotherm (ca 1300oC) locates below volcanic fronts, slab surface depths below such an isotherm are compatible with the observed depths of the slab surface below volcanic fronts © 1998 Elsevier Science BV All rights reserved
TL;DR: In this article, an algorithm for the construction of phase diagram sections is formulated that is well suited for geodynamic problems in which it is necessary to assess the influence of phase transitions on rock properties or the evolution and migration of fluids.
Abstract: An algorithm for the construction of phase diagram sections is formulated that is well suited for geodynamic problems in which it is necessary to assess the influence of phase transitions on rock properties or the evolution and migration of fluids. The basis of the algorithm is the representation of the continuous compositional variations of solution phases by series of discrete compositions. As a consequence of this approximation the classical non-linear free energy minimization problem is trivially solved by linear programming. Phase relations are then mapped as a function of the variables of interest using bisection to locate phase boundaries. Treatment of isentropic and isothermal phase relations involving felsic and mafic silicate melts by this method is illustrated. To demonstrate the tractability of more complex problems involving mass transfer, a model for infiltration driven-decarbonation in subduction zones is evaluated. As concluded from earlier closed system models, the open-system model indicates that carbonates are likely to persist in the subducted oceanic crust beyond sub-arc depths even if the upper section of the oceanic mantle is extensively hydrated. However, in contrast to more simplistic models of slab devolatilization, the open-system model suggests slab fluid production is heterogeneous and ephemeral. Computed seismic velocity profiles, together with thermodynamic constraints, imply that for typical geothermal conditions serpentinization of the subducted mantle is unlikely to extend to N25 km depth and that the average water-content of the serpentinized mantle is b2 wt.%. D 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: Seismic tomography models of the three-dimensional upper mantle velocity structure of the Mediterranean-Carpathian region provide a better understanding of the lithospheric processes governing its geodynamical evolution.
Abstract: Seismic tomography models of the three-dimensional upper mantle velocity structure of the Mediterranean-Carpathian region provide a better understanding of the lithospheric processes governing its geodynamical evolution. Slab detachment, in particular lateral migration of this process along the plate boundary, is a key element in the lithospheric dynamics of the region during the last 20 to 30 million years. It strongly affects arc and trench migration, and causes along-strike variations in vertical motions, stress fields, and magmatism. In a terminal-stage subduction zone, involving collision and suturing, slab detachment is the natural last stage in the gravitational settling of subducted lithosphere.
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