About: Slow-wave sleep is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 6543 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 320663 citation(s). The topic is also known as: deep sleep.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Feb 2010-Nature Reviews Neuroscience
TL;DR: Sleep has been identified as a state that optimizes the consolidation of newly acquired information in memory, depending on the specific conditions of learning and the timing of sleep, through specific patterns of neuromodulatory activity and electric field potential oscillations.
Abstract: Sleep improves the consolidation of both declarative and non-declarative memories. Diekelmann and Born discuss the potential mechanisms through which slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep support system and synaptic consolidation. Sleep has been identified as a state that optimizes the consolidation of newly acquired information in memory, depending on the specific conditions of learning and the timing of sleep. Consolidation during sleep promotes both quantitative and qualitative changes of memory representations. Through specific patterns of neuromodulatory activity and electric field potential oscillations, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep support system consolidation and synaptic consolidation, respectively. During SWS, slow oscillations, spindles and ripples — at minimum cholinergic activity — coordinate the re-activation and redistribution of hippocampus-dependent memories to neocortical sites, whereas during REM sleep, local increases in plasticity-related immediate-early gene activity — at high cholinergic and theta activity — might favour the subsequent synaptic consolidation of memories in the cortex.
TL;DR: It appears that even relatively moderate sleep restriction can seriously impair waking neurobehavioral functions in healthy adults, and sleep debt is perhaps best understood as resulting in additional wakefulness that has a neurobiological "cost" which accumulates over time.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness were near-linearly related to the cumulative duration of wakefulness in excess of 15.84 h (s.e. 0.73 h). CONCLUSIONS: Since chronic restriction of sleep to 6 h or less per night produced cognitive performance deficits equivalent to up to 2 nights of total sleep deprivation, it appears that even relatively moderate sleep restriction can seriously impair waking neurobehavioral functions in healthy adults. Sleepiness ratings suggest that subjects were largely unaware of these increasing cognitive deficits, which may explain why the impact of chronic sleep restriction on waking cognitive functions is often assumed to be benign. Physiological sleep responses to chronic restriction did not mirror waking neurobehavioral responses, but cumulative wakefulness in excess of a 15.84 h predicted performance lapses across all four experimental conditions. This suggests that sleep debt is perhaps best understood as resulting in additional wakefulness that has a neurobiological "cost" which accumulates over time.
TL;DR: In adults, it appeared that sleep latency, percentages of stage 1 and stage 2 significantly increased with age while percentage of REM sleep decreased, and effect sizes for the different sleep parameters were greatly modified by the quality of subject screening, diminishing or even masking age associations with differentSleep parameters.
Abstract: Objectives: The purposes of this study were to identify age-related changes in objectively recorded sleep patterns across the human life span in healthy individuals and to clarify whether sleep latency and percentages of stage 1, stage 2, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep significantly change with age. Design: Review of literature of articles published between 1960 and 2003 in peer-reviewed journals and meta-analysis. Participants: 65 studies representing 3,577 subjects aged 5 years to 102 years. Measurement: The research reports included in this meta-analysis met the following criteria: (1) included nonclinical participants aged 5 years or older; (2) included measures of sleep characteristics by “all night” polysomnography or actigraphy on sleep latency, sleep efficiency, total sleep time, stage 1 sleep, stage 2 sleep, slow-wave sleep, REM sleep, REM latency, or minutes awake after sleep onset; (3) included numeric presentation of the data; and (4) were published between 1960 and 2003 in peer-reviewed journals. Results: In children and adolescents, total sleep time decreased with age only in studies performed on school days. Percentage of slow-wave sleep was significantly negatively correlated with age. Percentages of stage 2 and REM sleep significantly changed with age. In adults, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, percentage of slow-wave sleep, percentage of REM sleep, and REM latency all significantly decreased with age, while sleep latency, percentage of stage 1 sleep, percentage of stage 2 sleep, and wake after sleep onset significantly increased with age. However, only sleep efficiency continued to significantly decrease after 60 years of age. The magnitudes of the effect sizes noted changed depending on whether or not studied participants were screened for mental disorders, organic diseases, use of drug or alcohol, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, or other sleep disorders. Conclusions: In adults, it appeared that sleep latency, percentages of stage 1 and stage 2 significantly increased with age while percentage of REM sleep decreased. However, effect sizes for the different sleep parameters were greatly modified by the quality of subject screening, diminishing or even masking age associations with different sleep parameters. The number of studies that examined the evolution of sleep parameters with age are scant among school-aged children, adolescents, and middle-aged adults. There are also very few studies that examined the effect of race on polysomnographic sleep parameters.
01 Aug 1981-The Journal of Neuroscience
TL;DR: The NE-LC system may globally bias the responsiveness of target neurons and thereby influence overall behavioral orientation, generally consistent with previous proposals that the NE- LC system is involved in regulating cortical and behavioral arousal.
Abstract: Spontaneous discharge of norepinephrine-containing locus coeruleus (NE-LC) neurons was examined during the sleep-walking cycle (S-WC) in behaving rats. Single unit and multiple unit extracellular recordings yielded a consistent set of characteristic discharge properties. (1) Tonic discharge co-varied with stages of the S-WC, being highest during waking, lower during slow wave sleep, and virtually absent during paradoxical sleep. (2) Discharge anticipated S-WC stages as well as phasic cortical activity, such as spindles, during slow wave sleep. (3) Discharge decreased within active waking during grooming and sweet water consumption. (4) Bursts of impulses accompanied spontaneous or sensory-evoked interruptions of sleep, grooming, consumption, or other such ongoing behavior. (5) These characteristic discharge properties were topographically homogeneous for recordings throughout the NE-LC. (6) Phasic robust activity was synchronized markedly among neurons in multiple unit populations. (7) Field potentials occurred spontaneously in the NE-LC and were synchronized with bursts of unit activity from the same electrodes. (8) Field potentials became dissociated from unit activity during paradoxical sleep, exhibiting their highest rates in the virtual absence of impulses. These results are generally consistent with previous proposals that the NE-LC system is involved in regulating cortical and behavioral arousal. On the basis of the present data and those described in the following report (Aston-Jones, G., and F. E. Bloom (1981) J. Neurosci.1: 887-900), we conclude that these neurons may mediate a specific function within the general arousal framework. In brief, the NE-LC system may globally bias the responsiveness of target neurons and thereby influence overall behavioral orientation.
TL;DR: Records from a large number of nights in single individuals indicated that some could maintain a very striking regularity in their sleep pattern from night to night, and that body movement, after rising to a peak, dropped sharply at the onset of rapid eye movements and rebounded abruptly as the eye movements ceased.
Abstract: In 33 adults, discrete periods of rapid eye movement potentials were recorded without exception during each of 126 nights of undisturbed sleep. These periods were invariably concomitant with a characteristic EEG pattern, stage 1. Composite histograms revealed that the mean EEG, eye movement incidence, and body movement incidence underwent regular cyclic variations throughout the night with the peaks of eye and body movement coinciding with the lightest phase of the EEG cycles. A further analysis indicated that body movement, after rising to a peak, dropped sharply at the onset of rapid eye movements and rebounded abruptly as the eye movements ceased. Records from a large number of nights in single individuals indicated that some could maintain a very striking regularity in their sleep pattern from night to night. The stage 1 EEG at the onset of sleep was never associated with rapid eye movements and was also characterized by a lower auditory threshold than the later periods of stage 1. No dreams were recalled after awakenings during the sleep onset stage 1, only hypnagogic reveries.
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