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Small molecule

About: Small molecule is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5834 publications have been published within this topic receiving 161140 citations. The topic is also known as: small molecules.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) is a rapid and inexpensive screening method to identify low-molecular-weight ligands that bind and stabilize purified proteins.
Abstract: Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) is a rapid and inexpensive screening method to identify low-molecular-weight ligands that bind and stabilize purified proteins. The temperature at which a protein unfolds is measured by an increase in the fluorescence of a dye with affinity for hydrophobic parts of the protein, which are exposed as the protein unfolds. A simple fitting procedure allows quick calculation of the transition midpoint; the difference in the temperature of this midpoint in the presence and absence of ligand is related to the binding affinity of the small molecule, which can be a low-molecular-weight compound, a peptide or a nucleic acid. DSF is best performed using a conventional real-time PCR instrument. Ligand solutions from a storage plate are added to a solution of protein and dye, distributed into the wells of the PCR plate and fluorescence intensity measured as the temperature is raised gradually. Results can be obtained in a single day.

2,194 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Together, the improvements made to both the small molecule and protein force field lead to a high level of accuracy in predicting protein-ligand binding measured over a wide range of targets and ligands (less than 1 kcal/mol RMS error) representing a 30% improvement over earlier variants of the OPLS force field.
Abstract: The parametrization and validation of the OPLS3 force field for small molecules and proteins are reported. Enhancements with respect to the previous version (OPLS2.1) include the addition of off-atom charge sites to represent halogen bonding and aryl nitrogen lone pairs as well as a complete refit of peptide dihedral parameters to better model the native structure of proteins. To adequately cover medicinal chemical space, OPLS3 employs over an order of magnitude more reference data and associated parameter types relative to other commonly used small molecule force fields (e.g., MMFF and OPLS_2005). As a consequence, OPLS3 achieves a high level of accuracy across performance benchmarks that assess small molecule conformational propensities and solvation. The newly fitted peptide dihedrals lead to significant improvements in the representation of secondary structure elements in simulated peptides and native structure stability over a number of proteins. Together, the improvements made to both the small mole...

2,127 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A general method for the covalent labeling of fusion proteins in vivo that complements existing methods for noncovalentlabeling of proteins and that may open up new ways of studying proteins in living cells is described.
Abstract: Characterizing the movement, interactions, and chemical microenvironment of a protein inside the living cell is crucial to a detailed understanding of its function. Most strategies aimed at realizing this objective are based on genetically fusing the protein of interest to a reporter protein that monitors changes in the environment of the coupled protein. Examples include fusions with fluorescent proteins, the yeast two-hybrid system, and split ubiquitin. However, these techniques have various limitations, and considerable effort is being devoted to specific labeling of proteins in vivo with small synthetic molecules capable of probing and modulating their function. These approaches are currently based on the noncovalent binding of a small molecule to a protein, the formation of stable complexes between biarsenical compounds and peptides containing cysteines, or the use of biotin acceptor domains. Here we describe a general method for the covalent labeling of fusion proteins in vivo that complements existing methods for noncovalent labeling of proteins and that may open up new ways of studying proteins in living cells.

1,702 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: MacKerell and Banavali as mentioned in this paper proposed an iterative approach to reproduce macromolecular target data while maximizing agreement with small molecule target data, and the resulting parameters represent the latest step in the continued development of the CHARMM all-atom biomolecular force field for proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
Abstract: Empirical force-field calculations on biological molecules represent an effective method to obtain atomic detail information on the relationship of their structure to their function. Results from those calculations depend on the quality of the force field. In this manuscript, optimization of the CHARMM27 all-atom empirical force field for nucleic acids is presented together with the resulting parameters. The optimization procedure is based on the reproduction of small molecule target data from both experimental and quantum mechanical studies and condensed phase structural properties of DNA and RNA. Via an iterative approach, the parameters were primarily optimized to reproduce macromolecular target data while maximizing agreement with small molecule target data. This approach is expected to ensure that the different contributions from the individual moieties in the nucleic acids are properly balanced to yield condensed phase properties of DNA and RNA, which are consistent with experiment. The quality of the presented force field in reproducing both crystal and solution properties are detailed in the present and an accompanying manuscript (MacKerell and Banavali, J Comput Chem, this issue). The resultant parameters represent the latest step in the continued development of the CHARMM all-atom biomolecular force field for proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Comput Chem 21: 86–104, 2000

1,459 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20231,118
2022989
2021391
2020447
2019403
2018371