About: Smoothelin is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 264 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 14069 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jul 2004-Physiological Reviews
TL;DR: The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of molecular mechanisms/processes that control differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) during normal development and maturation of the vasculature, as well as how these mechanisms/ processeses are altered in vascular injury or disease.
Abstract: The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of molecular mechanisms/processes that control differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) during normal development and maturation of the vasculature, as well as how these mechanisms/processes are altered in vascular injury or disease. A major challenge in understanding differentiation of the vascular SMC is that this cell can exhibit a wide range of different phenotypes at different stages of development, and even in adult organisms the cell is not terminally differentiated. Indeed, the SMC is capable of major changes in its phenotype in response to changes in local environmental cues including growth factors/inhibitors, mechanical influences, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and various inflammatory mediators. There has been much progress in recent years to identify mechanisms that control expression of the repertoire of genes that are specific or selective for the vascular SMC and required for its differentiated function. One of the most exciting recent discoveries was the identification of the serum response factor (SRF) coactivator gene myocardin that appears to be required for expression of many SMC differentiation marker genes, and for initial differentiation of SMC during development. However, it is critical to recognize that overall control of SMC differentiation/maturation, and regulation of its responses to changing environmental cues, is extremely complex and involves the cooperative interaction of many factors and signaling pathways that are just beginning to be understood. There is also relatively recent evidence that circulating stem cell populations can give rise to smooth muscle-like cells in association with vascular injury and atherosclerotic lesion development, although the exact role and properties of these cells remain to be clearly elucidated. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state of our knowledge in this area and to attempt to identify some of the key unresolved challenges and questions that require further study.
01 Jul 1995-Physiological Reviews
TL;DR: Current knowledge of the regulation of SMC differentiation is summarized, with a particular emphasis on consideration of how this process is controlled during normal vascular development and how these control processes might be altered in vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, which are characterized by marked alterations in the differentiated state of the SMC.
Abstract: The vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) in mature animals is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. The fully differentiated or mature SMC proliferates at an extremely low rate and is a cell almost completely geared for contraction. It expresses a unique repertoire of contractile proteins, ion channels, and signaling molecules that are required for its contractile function and that when taken in aggregate clearly distinguish it from any other cell type. During vasculogenesis, however, the SMC's principal function is proliferation and production of matrix components of the blood vessel wall. Moreover, even in mature animals, the SMC retains remarkable plasticity, such that it can undergo relatively rapid and reversible changes in its phenotype in response to changes in local environmental cues normally required for maintenance of its differentiated state. A key to understanding SMC differentiation is to identify the key environmental signals and factors that induce or maintain the differentiated state of the SMC and to determine the molecular mechanisms that control the coordinate expression of genes encoding for proteins that are necessary for the contractile function of the SMC. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the regulation of SMC differentiation, with a particular emphasis on consideration of how this process is controlled during normal vascular development and how these control processes might be altered in vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, which are characterized by marked alterations in the differentiated state of the SMC.
TL;DR: The results suggest that p53 activates concerted opposing signals and exerts its effect through a diverse network of transcriptional changes that collectively alter the cell phenotype in response to stress.
Abstract: The transcriptional program regulated by the tumor suppressor p53 was analysed using oligonucleotide microarrays. A human lung cancer cell line that expresses the temperature sensitive murine p53 was utilized to quantitate mRNA levels of various genes at diAerent time points after shifting the temperature to 328C. Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide (CHX) was used to distinguish between primary and secondary target genes regulated by p53. In the absence of CHX, 259 and 125 genes were up or down-regulated respectively; only 38 and 24 of these genes were up and down-regulated by p53 also in the presence of CHX and are considered primary targets in this cell line. Cluster analysis of these data using the super paramagnetic clustering (SPC) algorithm demonstrate that the primary genes can be distinguished as a single cluster among a large pool of p53 regulated genes. This procedure identified additional genes that co-cluster with the primary targets and can also be classified as such genes. In addition to cell cycle (e.g. p21, TGF-b, Cyclin E) and apoptosis (e.g. Fas, Bak, IAP) related genes, the primary targets of p53 include genes involved in many aspects of cell function, including cell adhesion (e.g. Thymosin, Smoothelin), signaling (e.g. H-Ras, Diacylglycerol kinase), transcription (e.g. ATF3, LISCH7), neuronal growth (e.g. Ninjurin, NSCL2) and DNA repair (e.g. BTG2, DDB2). The results suggest that p53 activates concerted opposing signals and exerts its eAect through a diverse network of transcriptional changes that collectively alter the cell phenotype in response to stress. Oncogene (2001) 20, 2225‐2234.
TL;DR: Adipose-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells and, thus, adipose tissue can be a useful source of cells for treatment of injured tissues where smooth muscle plays an important role.
Abstract: Smooth muscle is a major component of human tissues and is essential for the normal function of a multitude of organs including the intestine, urinary tract and the vascular system. The use of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering and regeneration strategies represents a promising alternative for smooth muscle repair. For such strategies to succeed, a reliable source of smooth muscle precursor cells must be identified. Adipose tissue provides an abundant source of multipotent cells. In this study, the capacity of processed lipoaspirate (PLA) and adipose-derived stem cells to differentiate into phenotypic and functional smooth muscle cells was evaluated. To induce differentiation, PLA cells were cultured in smooth muscle differentiation medium. Smooth muscle differentiation of PLA cells induced genetic expression of all smooth muscle markers and further confirmed by increased protein expression of smooth muscle cell-specific α actin (ASMA), calponin, caldesmon, SM22, myosin heavy chain (MHC), and smoothelin. Clonal studies of adipose derived multipotent cells demonstrated differentiation of these cells into smooth muscle cells in addition to trilineage differentiation capacity. Importantly, smooth muscle-differentiated cells, but not their precursors, exhibit the functional ability to contract and relax in direct response to pharmacologic agents. In conclusion, adipose-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells and, thus, adipose tissue can be a useful source of cells for treatment of injured tissues where smooth muscle plays an important role.
01 May 2011-Gastroenterology
TL;DR: It is suggested that on full-thickness biopsy specimens, cellular abnormalities are found in the majority of patients with gastroparesis, and an increase in CD45 and CD68 immunoreactivity is found.
Abstract: Background & Aims Cellular changes associated with diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis are not well described. The aim of this study was to describe histologic abnormalities in gastroparesis and compare findings in idiopathic versus diabetic gastroparesis. Methods Full-thickness gastric body biopsy specimens were obtained from 40 patients with gastroparesis (20 diabetic) and matched controls. Sections were stained for H&E and trichrome and immunolabeled with antibodies against protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, and tyrosine hydroxylase to quantify nerves, S100β for glia, Kit for interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), CD45 and CD68 for immune cells, and smoothelin for smooth muscle cells. Tissue was also examined by transmission electron microscopy. Results Histologic abnormalities were found in 83% of patients. The most common defects were loss of ICC with remaining ICC showing injury, an abnormal immune infiltrate containing macrophages, and decreased nerve fibers. On light microscopy, no significant differences were found between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis with the exception of nNOS expression, which was decreased in more patients with idiopathic gastroparesis (40%) compared with diabetic patients (20%) by visual grading. On electron microscopy, a markedly increased connective tissue stroma was present in both disorders. Conclusions This study suggests that on full-thickness biopsy specimens, cellular abnormalities are found in the majority of patients with gastroparesis. The most common findings were loss of Kit expression, suggesting loss of ICC, and an increase in CD45 and CD68 immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that examination of tissue can lead to valuable insights into the pathophysiology of these disorders and offer hope that new therapeutic targets can be found.
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