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Sodium fluoride

About: Sodium fluoride is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3933 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 65241 citation(s). The topic is also known as: floridine & sodium monofluoride.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that fluoride therapy increases cancellous but decreases cortical bone mineral density and increases skeletal fragility, and the fluoride-calcium regimen was not effective treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

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Abstract: Although fluoride increases bone mass, the newly formed bone may have reduced strength. To assess the effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in osteoporosis, we conducted a four-year prospective clinical trial in 202 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures who were randomly assigned to receive sodium fluoride (75 mg per day) or placebo. All received a calcium supplement (1500 mg per day). Sixty-six women in the fluoride group and 69 women in the placebo group completed the trial. As compared with the placebo group, the treatment group had increases in median bone mineral density of 35 percent (P less than 0.0001) in the lumbar spine (predominantly cancellous bone), 12 percent (P less than 0.0001) in the femoral neck, and 10 percent (P less than 0.0001) in the femoral trochanter (sites of mixed cortical and cancellous bone), but the bone mineral density decreased by 4 percent (P less than 0.02) in the shaft of the radius (predominantly cortical bone). The number of new vertebral fractures was similar in the treatment and placebo groups (163 and 136, respectively; P not significant), but the number of nonvertebral fractures was higher in the treatment group (72 vs. 24; P less than 0.01). Fifty-four women in the fluoride group and 24 in the placebo group had side effects sufficiently severe to warrant dose reduction; the major side effects were gastrointestinal symptoms and lower-extremity pain. We conclude that fluoride therapy increases cancellous but decreases cortical bone mineral density and increases skeletal fragility. Thus, under the conditions of this study, the fluoride-calcium regimen was not effective treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

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970 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
21 Oct 1983-Science
TL;DR: Treatment with sodium fluoride increased proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of bone cells in vitro and increasedBone formation in embryonic calvaria at concentrations that stimulate bone formation in vivo.

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Abstract: Fluoride is one of the most potent but least well understood stimulators of bone formation in vivo. Bone formation was shown to arise from direct effects on bone cells. Treatment with sodium fluoride increased proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of bone cells in vitro and increased bone formation in embryonic calvaria at concentrations that stimulate bone formation in vivo.

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559 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
B. L. Riggs1, Ego Seeman1, Stephen F. Hodgson1, Donald R. Taves  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: The combination of calcium fluoride, and estrogen was more effective than any other combination and grounds for optimism about the efficacy of combinations of available agents with sodium fluoride for fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

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Abstract: We assessed the rates of vertebral fracture in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Forty-five patients were not treated (91 person-years of observation); 59 were treated conventionally, with calcium (alone or combined with estrogen) or vitamin D or both (218 years); and 61 were treated with sodium fluoride combined with conventional therapy (251 years). The fracture rate (per thousand person-years) was 834 in untreated patients, 419 in those given calcium with or without vitamin D, 304 in those given fluoride and calcium with or without vitamin D, 181 in those given estrogen and calcium with or without vitamin D, and 53 in those given fluoride, estrogen, and calcium with or without vitamin D. It was reduced in all treatment groups (P less than 0.001 for calcium and P less than 1 x 10(-6) for other combinations); fluoride (one years of treatment) and estrogen (but not vitamin D) independently reduced the rate from that observed with calcium alone (P less than 0.001). The combination of calcium fluoride, and estrogen was more effective than any other combination (P less than 0.001). These results provide grounds for optimism about the efficacy of combinations of available agents with sodium fluoride for fracture in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

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515 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
David L. Ozsvath1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Although much is known about the occurrence and health effects of fluoride, problems persist in Third World countries, where populations have little choice in the source of their drinking water and food, even in developed nations, fluoride ingestion can exceed the recommended dose when sources other than drinking water are ignored.

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Abstract: The relationship between environmental fluoride and human health has been studied for over 100 years by researchers from a wide variety of disciplines. Most scientists believe that small amounts of fluoride in the diet can help prevent dental caries and strengthen bones, but there are a number of adverse affects that chronic ingestion at high doses can have on human health, including dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, increased rates of bone fractures, decreased birth rates, increased rates of urolithiasis (kidney stones), impaired thyroid function, and lower intelligence in children. Chronic occupational exposure to fluoride dust and gas is associated with higher rates of bladder cancer and variety of respiratory ailments. Acute fluoride toxicity and even death from the ingestion of sodium fluoride pesticides and dental products have also been reported. The distribution of fluoride in the natural environment is very uneven, largely a result of the geochemical behavior of this element. Fluorine is preferentially enriched in highly evolved magmas and hydrothermal solutions, which explains why high concentrations are often found in syenites, granitoid plutonic rocks, alkaline volcanic, and hydrothermal deposits. Fluoride can also occur in sedimentary formations that contain fluoride-bearing minerals derived from the parent rock, fluoride-rich clays, or fluorapatite. Dissolved fluoride levels are usually controlled by the solubility of fluorite (CaF2); thus, high concentrations are often associated with soft, alkaline, and calcium-deficient waters. Although much is known about the occurrence and health effects of fluoride, problems persist in Third World countries, where populations have little choice in the source of their drinking water and food. However, even in developed nations, fluoride ingestion can exceed the recommended dose when sources other than drinking water are ignored.

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396 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Eric C. Reynolds1, F. Cai1, N.J. Cochrane1, Peiyan Shen1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
TL;DR: The addition of 2% CPP-ACP to the 450-ppm-F mouthrinse significantly increased the incorporation of fluoride into plaque and produced a level of remineralization similar to that achieved with a dentifrice containing 2800 ppm F.

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Abstract: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) slows the progression of caries and remineralizes enamel subsurface lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of CPP-ACP to increase the incorporation of fluoride into plaque and to promote enamel remineralization in situ. Randomized, double-blind, cross-over studies involved mouthrinses and dentifrices containing CPP-ACP and fluoride. The mouthrinses were used for 60 sec, three times/day for 5 days, and supragingival plaque was collected and analyzed for F. The dentifrices were rinsed as a water slurry for 60 sec four times/day for 14 days in an in situ model. The addition of 2% CPP-ACP to the 450-ppm-F mouthrinse significantly increased the incorporation of fluoride into plaque. The dentifrice containing 2% CPP-ACP produced a level of remineralization similar to that achieved with a dentifrice containing 2800 ppm F. The dentifrice containing 2% CPP-ACP plus 1100 ppm F was superior to all other formulations.

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356 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20225
202194
2020113
2019106
2018129
2017127

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Jundong Wang

36 papers, 558 citations

Charles Y.C. Pak

14 papers, 819 citations

Ruiyan Niu

14 papers, 257 citations

Aiguo Wang

14 papers, 664 citations

George K. Stookey

12 papers, 292 citations