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Solar energy

About: Solar energy is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 73242 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1072640 citation(s). The topic is also known as: solar power.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Oct 1991-Nature
Abstract: THE large-scale use of photovoltaic devices for electricity generation is prohibitively expensive at present: generation from existing commercial devices costs about ten times more than conventional methods1. Here we describe a photovoltaic cell, created from low-to medium-purity materials through low-cost processes, which exhibits a commercially realistic energy-conversion efficiency. The device is based on a 10-µm-thick, optically transparent film of titanium dioxide particles a few nanometres in size, coated with a monolayer of a charge-transfer dye to sensitize the film for light harvesting. Because of the high surface area of the semiconductor film and the ideal spectral characteristics of the dye, the device harvests a high proportion of the incident solar energy flux (46%) and shows exceptionally high efficiencies for the conversion of incident photons to electrical current (more than 80%). The overall light-to-electric energy conversion yield is 7.1-7.9% in simulated solar light and 12% in diffuse daylight. The large current densities (greater than 12 mA cm-2) and exceptional stability (sustaining at least five million turnovers without decomposition), as well as the low cost, make practical applications feasible.

25,199 citations

Book
01 Jan 1980
Abstract: FUNDAMENTALS. Solar Radiation. Available Solar Radiation. Selected Heat Transfer Topics. Radiation Characteristics of Opaque Materials. Radiation Transmission Through Glazing: Absorbed Radiation. Flat--Plate Collectors. Concentrating Collectors. Energy Storage. Solar Process Loads. System Thermal Calculations. Solar Process Economics. APPLICATIONS. Solar Water Heating----Active and Passive. Building Heating----Active. Building Heating: Passive and Hybrid Methods. Cooling. Industrial Process Heat. Solar Thermal Power Systems. Solar Ponds: Evaporative Processes. THERMAL DESIGN METHODS. Simulations in Solar Process Design. Design of Active Systems by f--Chart. Design of Active Systems by Utilizability Methods. Design of Passive and Hybrid Heating Systems. Design of Photovoltaic Systems. Appendices. Author Index. Subject Index.

9,385 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that an abundant material, polymeric carbon nitride, can produce hydrogen from water under visible-light irradiation in the presence of a sacrificial donor.
Abstract: The production of hydrogen from water using a catalyst and solar energy is an ideal future energy source, independent of fossil reserves. For an economical use of water and solar energy, catalysts that are sufficiently efficient, stable, inexpensive and capable of harvesting light are required. Here, we show that an abundant material, polymeric carbon nitride, can produce hydrogen from water under visible-light irradiation in the presence of a sacrificial donor. Contrary to other conducting polymer semiconductors, carbon nitride is chemically and thermally stable and does not rely on complicated device manufacturing. The results represent an important first step towards photosynthesis in general where artificial conjugated polymer semiconductors can be used as energy transducers.

7,884 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The biggest challenge is whether or not the goals need to be met to fully utilize solar energy for the global energy demand can be met in a costeffective way on the terawatt scale.
Abstract: Energy harvested directly from sunlight offers a desirable approach toward fulfilling, with minimal environmental impact, the need for clean energy. Solar energy is a decentralized and inexhaustible natural resource, with the magnitude of the available solar power striking the earth’s surface at any one instant equal to 130 million 500 MW power plants.1 However, several important goals need to be met to fully utilize solar energy for the global energy demand. First, the means for solar energy conversion, storage, and distribution should be environmentally benign, i.e. protecting ecosystems instead of steadily weakening them. The next important goal is to provide a stable, constant energy flux. Due to the daily and seasonal variability in renewable energy sources such as sunlight, energy harvested from the sun needs to be efficiently converted into chemical fuel that can be stored, transported, and used upon demand. The biggest challenge is whether or not these goals can be met in a costeffective way on the terawatt scale.2

7,163 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Solar energy is by far the largest exploitable resource, providing more energy in 1 hour to the earth than all of the energy consumed by humans in an entire year, and if solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, it must be stored and dispatched on demand to the end user.
Abstract: Global energy consumption is projected to increase, even in the face of substantial declines in energy intensity, at least 2-fold by midcentury relative to the present because of population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere demands that holding atmospheric CO2 levels to even twice their preanthropogenic values by midcentury will require invention, development, and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable energy resources, solar energy is by far the largest exploitable resource, providing more energy in 1 hour to the earth than all of the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. In view of the intermittency of insolation, if solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, it must be stored and dispatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar-converted energy in the form of chemical bonds, i.e., in a photosynthetic process at a year-round average efficiency significantly higher than current plants or algae, to reduce land-area requirements. Scientific challenges involved with this process include schemes to capture and convert solar energy and then store the energy in the form of chemical bonds, producing oxygen from water and a reduced fuel such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, or other hydrocarbon species.

6,324 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022136
20212,906
20203,466
20193,918
20184,709
20174,862